The Atom
                                                 The Cosmos Reconsidered
                                             by Floyd E. Baker



                                                                            CHAPTER  2


Where it all begins...

And where it all leads.




First let me say that for the most part I am keeping this entire book at the level of the individual atom as it is understood to stand alone as the basic unit, with its fairly well known parts. 

Secondly, I want to be clear that we have come to see ‘gravity’  is NOT a separate force of its own...  It is simply the accumulated attraction that every atom has to every other atom.., because of their individual electrical charges...   That attraction being simply magnified many millions of trillions of times when they accumulate to the size of planets, and suns...    We will henceforth put ‘gravity’ in quotes to indicate that it we are simply using that NAME to relate to the particular attraction action that goes on between large bodies of matter caused by the  accumulated total electrical charges of all individual atoms combined..  Which then continue outward to attract the atoms in our bodies and other matter to hold to the  earth for instance. 

Atoms come in various sizes and flavors.  They consist of one or more positively charged protons in their nucleus along with a matching number of negatively charged electrons in orbit around that nucleus, the numbers of which make up the various elements, hydrogen, iron, etc.

The nucleus also contains neutrons in an amount equal to the protons, except for helium which has no neutron.  They each  play a part in producing or controlling the amount and exchange of mass and energy.  Their mass is equal to the total mass of the protons and electrons together.  There may be times when the number of electrons and neutrons are not exactly as above.   Atoms may be missing or have extra of either, which gives them different qualities and names such as ions, isotopes, etc.   But we leave all that for others to work out, much of it already done.  In any case, these constructions give atoms their atomic weights and inherent mass and  level of electrical charge, or energy...   Aka ‘gravity’ for those who want to relate it to the attraction that very large accumulations of atoms have to other matter.   And ‘inherent’ meaning at earth’s particular inertial frame of reference..   From which the higher or lower levels they produce in and of themselves is determined by the velocity they happen to be traveling through the cosmos.

As atoms are known to create more mass and energy (gravity) the faster their velocity in traveling through the cosmos.  Whether by scoffing up more Higgs bosons or by cutting through more lines of force of some as yet unknown cosmic medium.  Perhaps the Higgs field or the instantaneous transmission field Aether that has been suspected and suggested as far back as the ancient Greeks.    And still today by phenomenon such as entangled particles and what are called virtual particles.  Those little sparks that jump out of nowhere, and instantly disappear again, as if two ‘somethings’ collided while traveling their invisible paths.

It is known that nutrons can and do become protons at times.   I expect it happens fluidly and continuously as needed.    To introduce more positivity as needed in the direction of errant electrons...     Continuous fluctuations as directions and distances change to pull errant electrons back to the fold..  

In any case, the means is not the issue.   The point is that an atom's mass and energy/attraction-power (‘gravity’) is set by it's speed through the cosmos, be they alone or in groups of any size.   And to continue that thought.., if they were not moving, I expect they would not produce little if any attraction  at all.  Why would they need to if everything was remaining where it was... But I hope that is something we’ll never come to see.  :)

In any case.., since velocity does determine mass and energy/gravity.., there must be a cosmic zero velocity where there is no gravity.   Can it be determined..?

Perhaps by measuring the transitions of a single atom during each of several fixed  steps to higher velocity, for the amount and type change, linear, exponential, etc. and take it from there.    Compute the various findings including the control atom at earth’s rest frame...   Because as you know, it’s all relative... 

When one knows how much gravity/weight/mass is generated by changes in velocity it would be a simple matter to work back down to what we can ‘consider’ a cosmic speed of zero.  Where *everything* moves faster relative to it... 

Of course you will get into negative numbers with the velocity as it will go below our zero.  But when you reach zero gravity you’ll know you’re at zero velocity.   From there it will also tell you what our frame’s velocity is through the cosmos.  Simply make the negative number positive.    It may well be close to the velocity that observers out there see us truly moving at through the cosmos..   Not what we see in relation to local objects, etc.   



Protons and electrons being equal cause the atom to be electrically neutral, theoretically at least.  Although they are never totally neutral, as the electron's orbits are never perfectly circular.  They are stretched and distended away from the atom's nucleus as that atom dashes about the cosmos.  The atoms not losing an electron to become a positive ion but their ever so slight extra distance from the proton causes that atom to become slightly positive.   Not simply polarized as people seem to believe...  But, depending on the distance of the electrons,, and neutrons becoming protons.., some nuclei become more net positive than others.

It seems obvious that as atoms move through space, the distance they cover has to be added to the distance their electrons would normally cover in circular orbits.  And being unable to speed up to cover that extra, they will take longer to complete each orbit.   That being similar to the illustration of a photon bouncing between two mirrors.., the path between them becoming longer as velocity increases.   Ergo, their particular internal operating speed or 'aging'..,  slows.   No matter whether they are a part of a space ship traveling at half the speed of light or if you walk to the corner store for a six pack.    Einstein himself said in so many words that there is always 'payback'. :)

Atoms have these moving parts in whatever form of blur or fuzz they're considered to be, and it is known that electrons can and do take irregular orbital paths for ‘some’ reason..   So I submit that this is where the various directions and distances the atom's travels is accounted for.  Most likely at a level well below our ability to ever measure but that protons, and neutrons, can perceive quite easily.

It is the single fact to which everything relates.    There is NO imagined time stretching or folding...

But there is most certainly a constant changing of physical operating speeds, or in other words rates of aging going on with every atom in the cosmos.  Depending on their velocity at any one instant.

So we submit that as an atom travels through space, its electron's orbits become longer, relating to the atom's velocity, direction changes, and various miscellaneous attractions from other gravity fields.  As inertia and (center seeking) ‘gravity’ attraction are the same.  All the while the atom producing its own areas of additional electrical energy/attraction, ‘gravity’, to bring those more distant electrons back to the fold as best it can.  And to balance against and meld with all outside gravitational attractions.

Each atom will be either pulled into one of the gravity fields that attract it, to become a part of it, to help attract other single or small groups of atoms to it too.  Or to escape the attraction, lower its own proportional gravity strength again, and continue speeding through the cosmos on a slightly different tack..

Remember that you are on a planet spinning on its axis, going around a star, going around a galaxy, and so on.   So your atoms are moving quite erratically as you sit reading this book.  Not to mention the additional motions some of your atoms go through as you reach for your coffee or scroll the pages.  Every single atom in your body and every object in the cosmos has its own individual inertial frame of reference, continuously working to maintain its own equilibrium as it were.  These variations taking place within the flexing of the whole.   A minimal part of an otherwise stable overall group of atoms.., whatever they may form by working more or less together.  Up to and including the universe itself.  Because it does seem to be keeping its basic shape quite well.    All with the help of these lowly atoms creating a self policing electrical engergy network to make it so.   It’s a balancing act between any atom and all those others around it.   Continuously and instantaneously.   

And so for one more fact.., there cannot be gravity ‘waves’ or the cosmos would shake itself into oblivion.   More on that in the chapter on ’Gavity.
 

With straight line velocity, an atom's electron orbits form trailing spirals to elongated ovals, depending on their orientation to the nucleus.  Further departures from circular orbits are brought on by the constant attraction of outside gravity.  In other words, electron orbits are continuously being contorted as every atom moves faster or slower than those around it.  Just consider again the the atoms in your hand moving faster and further than those in your shoulder when you reach for your coffee.  Your fingertips have aged the least.

Outside gravity strengths create localized bulges in the overall shape of the paths that all electrons are taking around any particular atom. These bulges are in addition to the already existing spiral or oval velocity-only induced paths.  These contorted electron paths present to the nucleus a need for more counter balancing gravity which is then created.   The longer paths and extra gravity production also slows the operation of the atom as a whole.  Conservation of energy.    Every atom keeps itself in harmony with the cosmos around it.

It is seen as necessary for the atom that this extra internal gravity is produced in the direction of those extra distances their electrons are from the protons.  IOW, to attract more in the direction that is being pulled away.    And so, while the nucleus may  become more positive as a whole, it is also obvious that particular protons need to have more positivity than others within the nucleus... In the direction(s) needed. 

Individual protons going more positive in the direction of those errant electrons.    Fitting with the scenario of atoms traveling erratically this would be going on at all times, in one or more directions at once.  So it would certainly seem to be the case that individual protons adjust to the various strengths of positivity they are capable of.    Or more likely.., that they are each in a pecking order of  various strengths of positivity.    So that each proton is positive to the next lesser one or negative to the more positive one.   A string of different levels of positive charged  protons writhing around in the nucleus...  

I see the protons constantly rearranging themselves so that the most positive end of the string is facing the errant electrons back from whatever direction they're pulled away most. 

This is total speculation of course.  But there is some basis for such thought.  Magnetism.  Consider the increasing strengths of positivity from end to end of a bar magnet.  The levels of positivity do not cause the magnet's pole to explode because of repulsion.   But if one were to cut the magnet length-wise you will not be able to bring them together again.  

So too, if this proves to be so with protons of an atom, the need for the so called strong force can be eliminated.   

I'm of course all for eliminating as many of different laws, forces, rules and reasons that have come along to describe what's going on in the misconstrued time based cosmos.  We need more elegance... 

An atom's velocity reducing an atom's operating speed in this manner is more reasonable than science's outlook now that electrons simply jump to a higher level when accelerated.    They may do that too, I don't know ‘exactly’ what they’re saying..      But at least it’s nice to know that science is aware that an atom's electrons do have longer orbits the higher their velocity.    That increased velocity causes physically slower operations, longer living atoms, but only give  the *appearance* of time being stretched.

Thank you.., and you can now carry on to  ’GRAVITY’.