The Atom

                                                 The Cosmos Reconsidered
                                             by Floyd E. Baker

                                                                            CHAPTER  2

Where it all begins...

And where it all leads.

UPDATED April  2019

First let me say that for the most part I am keeping this entire book at the level of the individual atom as it is understood to stand alone as the basic unit with its fairly well known particles or parts.  I don’t care what kind of mud my bricks are made of, as long as they work.   :)

The Structure of the Atom   

I’ll go over some basics here, before the heavy stuff, mostly to avoid a lot of “yeah but” statements that wouldn’t mean anything anyway.   :/
Atoms come in various sizes and flavors.  They consist of one or more positively charged protons in a central group called a nucleus, along with a matching number of negatively charged electrons in orbit around that nucleus, the numbers of which make up the various elements.., hydrogen, iron, etc.

The nucleus also contains neutrons in an amount equal to the protons, except for helium which has no neutron.  Neutrons  have the ability to go either negative or positive as needed and seem to play a part in producing and controlling the amount of overall and very likely directional positivism of the nucleus..  The Neutrons mass is the same as the protons and electrons together. 

There may be times when the number of electrons and neutrons are not exactly as above.   Atoms may be missing or have extra of either, which gives them different qualities and names such as ions, isotopes, etc.   But we leave all that for others to work out.   In any case, these constructions give atoms their atomic weight, or mass.. How much attraction gravity they produce themselves compared to other atoms of a different weight, in the same frame. 

The heavier stuff....

The positive protons in the nucleus are said to be held together and prevented from repelling from  each other by the strong force’.  But I do not believe there is such a force.   We know nature does not make exact duplicates.  Leaves, snow flakes, etc. are each slightly different from each other.  So that would hold with protons too.  Each one being certain to have a slightly different and immeasurable by us positivity than any other proton.  So a proton with less would be negative to one with more, and one with more would be positive to those with less.    They would form a pecking order and connect together within the nucleus from least to most positive..  They would form a ball with the most positive in the center.  Voila, no need for the strong force. 

This is educated speculation of course.  But there is some basis for such thought.  Magnetism.  Consider the increasing strengths of positivity from end to end of a bar magnet.  The levels of positivity do not cause the magnet's pole to explode because of repulsion.   But if one were to cut the magnet lengthwise and they each form their own pecking order you will not be able to bring them together again.   So it seems more than likely that the need for the  strong force can be eliminated.    I am of course all for eliminating as many different laws, views forces, rules and reasons that have come along to describe what's going on in the misconstrued time based cosmos.  We need more elegance. 

The electrons would be the same.  Each having a slightly different and immeasurable by us negativism.  Each one then reacting to the nucleus individually with the result that each had its own specific distance from the nucleus.  This is most likely the reason they do not collide with each other..   There is no cloud, blur, buzz or whatever scenario once wants to create...  They are particles of matter after all.   There is no being in two or more places at once.  No  probability stuff at all. 

We should mention the phenomenon known as virtual particles that cause those little sparks that jump out of nowhere, and instantly disappear again, as if two ‘somethings’ collided while traveling their invisible paths.   So maybe once in awhile electrons *do* collide.  Nothing’s  perfect, you know.?    Especially if they’re being ejected or attracted out from the atom.   An idea, for what it’s worth.  :)

The Operation of the Atom

The term ‘increased mass’ only refers to relativistic shrinking, aka length contraction, that happens with increased speed.   Mass is an increase in number of  smaller, contracted, atoms fitting into a particular area,  as seen by the outside observer..

Atoms are known to increase their mass, aka contraction, the faster they travel through the cosmos.  It happens by producing more gravity to hold their electrons closer as they travel faster.   The atoms therefore all become smaller and more tightly packed.

It seems clear that as they travel faster and faster, that their electrons will lag further and further behind in their orbits.   We know that electrons have irregular orbits.  This is where it would be the neutron’s job to become more positive to produce more gravity to hold them closer.   I expect that it happens fluidly and continuously as needed.  To introduce the extra positivity as needed in the direction of errant electrons.  Perhaps also reducing it in the forward direction.    Continuous fluctuations to pull the errant electrons back to the fold, as the directions and the distances to them change

And as atoms move through space, the distance they cover has to be added to the distance the electrons would normally travel in standing still circular orbits.  And being unable to speed up to cover that extra distance, they will take longer to complete each orbit.   That being similar to the illustration of a ball of light bouncing between two mirrors.., the path between them becoming longer as velocity increases.   So with longer electron orbits the atom’s particular operating speed or rate of 'aging'  slows.   No matter whether they are a part of a space ship traveling at half the speed of light or if you walk to the corner store for a six pack.   This is the conservation of energy at work.   And Einstein himself said in so many words that there is always 'payback'. :)

In any case, the means is not the issue.   The point is that an atom's mass and gravity are set by it's speed through the cosmos, be they alone or in groups of any size.   And to continue that thought, if they were not moving, I expect they would not produce any gravity at all.  Why would they need gravity if everything was remaining where it was. 

So since velocity determines mass and gravity.., what is the cosmic zero velocity where there is no gravity.   Can it be determined..?

 When one knows how much gravity/weight/mass is generated by changes in velocity it would be a simple matter to work back down to what we can ‘consider’ a cosmic speed of zero.  Where everything moves faster relative to it... 

Of course you will get into negative numbers with the velocity as it will go below our zero.  But when you reach zero gravity you’ll know you’re at zero velocity.   From there it will also tell you what our frame’s is doing through the cosmos.  Simply make the negative number positive.   

Perhaps by measuring the operation of a single atom during each of several fixed  steps to higher velocity,  Using a centrifuge for instance.  For the amount and type change, linear, exponential, etc., and take it from there.    Use a cesium clock traveling at different speeds and compute the various findings, as opposed to a  control cesium clock remaining in earth’s rest frame...  And, because the earth is zig zagging all over the place, and any particular spot on earth is constantly changing speeds, anything we will be doing on earth will never have a constant condition.  So there needs to be as many duplicate experiments carried on at the same time in the same location, and then to repeat them over and over to find the max and min and at least the general average of all the tests.     To find the range of speeds that enclose where earth calls itself ‘at rest’.   That will probably not be very close, but we will know more than we did before.  :)

So we submit that as an atom travels through space, its electron's orbits become longer, relating to the atom's velocity, direction changes, and various miscellaneous attractions from other gravity fields.   All the while the atom producing its own areas and directions of additional gravity to bring those more distant electrons back to the fold as best it can.  And to balance against and meld with all outside gravitational attractions.

Remember that you are on a planet spinning on its axis, going around a star, going around a galaxy, and so on.   So your atoms are moving quite erratically as you sit reading this book.  Not to mention the additional motions some of your atoms go through as you reach for your coffee or scroll the pages.  Every single atom in your body has its own individual inertial frame of reference, continuously working to maintain its own equilibrium as it were.  These variations taking place within the flexing of the whole.   A minimal part of an otherwise stable overall group of atoms.., whatever they may form by working more or less together.  Up to and including the universe itself.  Because it does seem to be keeping its basic shape quite well..  All with the help of these lowly atoms creating a self policing gravity network to make it so.   It is a balancing act between any atom and those others around it.   Continuously and instantaneously.  The detail on how all that is accomplished is in the  chapter on Gravity.
More on electron orbits.

With straight line velocity, an atom's electron orbits form trailing spirals to elongated ovals, depending on their orientation to the nucleus.  Further departures from circular orbits are brought on by the constant attraction of outside gravity.  In other words, electron orbits are continuously being contorted as every atom moves faster or slower than those around it.  Just consider again the the atoms in your hand moving faster and further than those in your shoulder when you reach for your coffee.  Your fingertips have aged the least.

Outside gravity attraction strengths create localized bulges in the overall shape of the paths that all electrons are taking around any particular atom. These bulges are in addition to the already existing spiral or oval velocity-only induced paths.  These contorted electron paths present to the nucleus a need for more counter balancing gravity which is then created. 

Every atom keeps itself in harmony with the cosmos around it.   It is seen as necessary by the atom that this extra internal gravity be produced only in the direction of those extra distances their electrons are from the protons.  IOW, to attract more in the direction that is being pulled away.  Or even to lessen the forward direction strength and shift it to increase the rearward strength.  So in addition to the nucleus becoming more positive in certain directions, it is also possible that protons in their pecking order squirm around so to speak to present the lesser positive protons to the forward direction and the stronger positive protons to the rear or current travel

Fitting with the scenario of atoms traveling erratically this would be going on at all times, in one or more directions at once. 

An atom's velocity reducing an atom's operating speed in this manner is more reasonable than science's outlook now that electrons simply jump to a higher level when accelerated.   They may do that too, I don't know ‘exactly’ what they’re saying or meaning..  But at least it’s nice to know that science is aware that an atom's electrons do have longer orbits the higher their velocity.    That increased velocity causes physically slower operations, longer living atoms, and only the *appearance* of time being stretched.

Thank you.., and you can now carry on to  GRAVITY.