The Cosmos Reconsidered
by Floyd E. Baker
This is what it is and how it works.
The true and provable explanation of light is absolutely profound.
Light is said to be thee most mysterious of the phenomenons out there. But here is a complete and detailed description of light. It is not mysterious.....
The facts are solid. They answer all the questions..., and not just of light itself.
First, here is what is observed and so ‘believed’.
Light is said to be the fastest speed in the cosmos. That speed being approximately 186,000 miles a second and referred to as 'c' for conversation, calculus, and its constant...
And here are its paradoxes.
Light measures 'c' no matter the speed or direction its source is moving. ??
Light appears to be a particle at times and a wave at other times. ??
Light ‘photons’ are said to be mass-less but can be deflected by gravity. ??
And it is also said that the particle and wave characteristic is of a dual nature. Meaning that photons are both a particle and a wave more or less at the same time. Most people just seem to believe everything they're taught or told. That's very sad... :/
But it did not compute with us at all.... There had to be a better explanation... And there is...!
And to be honest, all that is written here should be already be known, understood, and pieced together just as I have done... I do not understand why we keep being told the crap we hear about light and the cosmos in general on TV, in ‘science’ books, and elsewhere.. I cannot be the only one who sees that much of it is total B.S.... Like they don’t even know why the sky is black at night..? Unbelievable...
PLEASE NOTE... Electro-Magnetic Spectrum will often be referred to as EMS. That's easy, right..? :)
So we submit that what are called photons do not exist... What do exist are simply free electrons that have been emitted from an excited source... That there are NO bits of pure energy scooting back and forth between electrons and protons that are then emitted and called photons. It is much more factual and logical that what are now called photons are actually and simply electrons, for reasons I will get into further on... And that they produce waves in their travels by electron transitions, their spin while cutting through the aether, or whatever. It matters not how they do it but that they do. Known and accepted physics I do believe.. Compton’s calculations can probably be corrected to fit this concept too.
It is this wave that comes to produce the entire cosmic wide EMSpectrum.. It extending well beyond that portion we on earth have come to know and love as radio, tv, x-rays and beyond.., including of course that much smaller portion most living beings on earth have developed the ability to see as visible light and sight. Each electron having this same identical ability.
That *photons* being currently described as packets of single frequency energy and that there needs to be uncountable trillions of specific frequencies to recreate the infinite shades of color we can see at times see is absolutely and totally insane...
So what are thought to be ‘photons’ are actually particles, aka electrons, that I will henceforth refer to as 'messenger photons' to keep their distinction separate from that of actual ’visible’ light, or any other part of the EMSpectrum. Particles that, as opposed to the waves they emit, do not travel at the speed of light.., as they do have mass. As even Einstein thought possible back then. Only that it was too slight to measure. But since they are not the actual light waves themselves.., and it is known than ‘light’ carries momentum and will exert pressure on a surface, we expect that pressure actually comes from the messenger photon particles themselves colliding with that surface. That it is not totally, if at all, the massless wave that each brings to these surfaces.. Since it is already known that photons are the force carriers of the electromagnetic field and that the Higgs Boson is said to give other particles mass via the Higgs mechanism, I am going on the premise that photons have mass.., and are in fact electrons..
Please note... I’ve already let the cat out of the bag above, but while it is widely believed that photons themselves are the visible light we see, I am stating that each photon is simply a messenger bringing potential light to us... Actually they each bring the entire EMSpectrum... Not only that which we are able to perceive in this particular inertial reference frame, but a lot more.. There is a lot said there... Most not explained yet but please read on...
Start with the idea of a radio transmitter being stationary and radiating its particular frequencies outward at the speed of light..
Now imagine that radio transmitter moving at 1/2 'c'. It's forward going wave would blue shift to twice the output frequency. And it's trailing wave would red shift to one half the output frequency.
Now visualize the transmitter traveling at the speed of light. As it is believed photons do. Or nearly so... I believe they actually travel at various much slower speeds which we will get into below, but for now think ‘c’.
You will see that because of this speed they are able to keep up with their radiated wave in the direction of travel. So what happens..? More blue shifting of course. To the extreme. Where the transmitter and the wave fronts are all traveling at the exact same speed... There will be no higher frequency to compress that wave to. All points of the wave will be in the same place at the same time, and so it will cancel themselves out... There will be no frequency...
But only in that exact pinpoint forward direction...
The wavefronts that are emanating outward in all 360 degree directions, will be blue shifted less and less as the angle moves further away from the direct line of travel. The outgoing wavefront emanating from the ‘rear’ of the photon as it travels forward will be the particle's native frequency and it will be left somewhat alone and hanging in space, not moving at all. It’s hard to even imagine EMRadiation standing still in space. It seems it should simply fall on the floor dead. lol But it seems they will just hang there until some detecting device comes from the far end and travels through it, along with all the other hanging waves that were left behind too, one would be able to detect it...
As what...? White noise of course... :) That which has been thought to be the remnants of the big bang... Which of course it is not... There was no big bang... :/
But looking forward again.., just outward from the forward line of travel the circular wave fronts will, degree by degree, become longer and stronger as the blue shifting lessens. This continuous lengthening produces an *infinite* electromagnetic spectrum, to be laid down on any surface the messenger photon hits. From the ultimate highest frequency cycles, or hertz, possible to the lowest that which may well be cosmos long.
Science has developed devices that can see above and below what we know as visible light. Because it’s really all the same thing... Science is searching the cosmos using it's x-rays and microwaves. And as above, those frequencies are brought to us by messenger photons too. Every photon produces the entire electromagnetic spectrum *at the moment of impact*. That range of frequencies reflecting or refracting from or through whatever the messenger photon/electron hits. And when we look directly at a source they spread directly on the retinas...
One of the paradoxes states that light will always measure the same speed, aka 'c', and that it cannot be exceeded. Not even if one light source is obviously traveling much faster than another light source. That one maximum speed of the universe is faster than another maximum speed of the universe. As seen by an outside viewer. Stranger still is that it will measure the same speed whether shining in the direction of travel or away from it. That if you were to shine a light forward toward the nose of a space ship traveling at one half 'c', light would measure 'c'. And if you were to shine a light to the rear of that space ship traveling forward at one half 'c', the light would measure 'c' again. Sounds impossible..? Yes it does.
But it's obviously possible because we are on the space ship earth. And we are traveling through the cosmos pretty fast ourselves. And likewise, it applies in every case where light is seen by eyes or measured by devices while traveling at any speed through the cosmos.
The puzzle presented above is obviously brought about by the fact that it considers two separate POV’s at once. One from the point of measuring the light from within the space ship’s inertial frame.., and the other from the POV of an outside observer measuring the speed of the space ship from their own inertial frame.
What is happening in truth..?
Nothing much as far as the delivery system goes. The messenger photons and the waves they generate travel at their particular rates of speed throughout the cosmos, not influenced at all by any sense of relativity. To messenger photons (electrons) there is no relativity.
Messenger photons remain virtually unchanged by any of the many inertial frames of reference they traverse. They may be slightly diverted by outside gravities as they travel from source to point of impact but their speed , whatever each was initially imparted with, is likely fairly constant cosmos wide. Each inertial frame is presented with the exact same phenomenon of light at these cosmic wide distribution speeds. The photons following Newton’s rules of inertia. Riding the universal aether or whatever. The light produced by these messenger photons and measured in the space ship and on the earth is the same light traveling at the very same speed. The only difference being the aging rates of the atoms in the particular inertial frames viewing each.. Their perception or *physical* operating speeds. THAT is the true relativity. Every inertial frame is relative to light. Every inertial frame's complete-to-themselves EMS range of frequencies will occupy it's own particular position or spot of the cosmic wide EMS. As determined by that frame’s velocity through the cosmos... Every person viewing that cosmic EMS will be seeing their own range of it as they vary their own speed (frame) within the larger frame... Everyone moving faster or slower, forward or backward.., on the earth’s surface for instance will be looking at their own particular perception range of frequencies of the cosmic EMS...
Again, In a nutshell, individuals in any inertial frame, whether it be on earth, in a space ship, or any other velocity, will simply be seeing the 'section' of the cosmic wide electromagnetic spectrum that fits their particular perception ability; their atom's speed of operation, their velocity induced ‘aging’ speed.... Visible light will appear to humans at the portion of the cosmos spectrum that matches the wavelengths their eyes and minds have evolved to see as visible light. Whatever the section of the cosmic EMR is, that is producing light in human eyes, will be seen to be the same earth bound frequency range by all measuring devices, atomic clocks, etc. in any frame. The section of the cosmos EMSpectrum being used will be different... That's all that changes... But we won’t see that...
All in all, it is a pretty sure bet that if you're physically aging slower and your perceptions are slower accordingly, and you want to paint your room blue, your brain is going to want to see a wavelength that relates to blue to your eyes and slowed mind. So you will see blue at a lower point on the cosmic spectrum than you would if you were aging faster at a slower inertial and lower gravity field.
So again.., what one sees is the particular frequency of the cosmic electromagnetic spectrum that matches the wavelength that their eyes and brain have evolved to see as blue. Because slower perceptions need longer frequencies to relate to, they use a lower range of frequencies from the photon's overall cosmic spectrum. The cosmic spectrum that is presented to all frames equally.
That is of course relativity. But NOT as it is currently understood to be related to time stretching, dilating, etc. Time is not relative... Time is not ‘anything’...
Extending this thinking further, we know that in all frames where people are seeing visible light, there is a frequency range above it that we on earth call x-rays. And while it is known in earth's inertial frame that x-rays are dangerous to humans.., if we were in a slower velocity and gravity, with perceptions running faster, those x-rays would still be dangerous. But in the new frame they would just be seen as the color blue again.., and not be considered dangerous. The reason being with our faster rate of living and dying in that new frame they would not affect us quickly enough.
That of course brings on the thought that we're being damaged at a very slow rate by the color blue right now. In fact we are. Because it still is another frame's x-rays. You can actually see that damage if you look at the back of your couch that has been facing the picture window for awhile. Or a wall where a picture had been hanging for awhile.
In other words, the entire spectrum, even those frequencies we think don't exist, those below our zero, those that take a decade or more for a single cycle here on earth may be the color blue to some extremely high velocity viewer. It's all relative you know..? This is how it works. I just don't know the limits... If there are any.
And in case you puzzle over surfaces reflecting higher or lower frequencies that those in various frames continue to see as blue, remember that the paint's molecules expand and contract according to velocity too. The size of any surface molecules are what determine what colors are reflected from it.
As the messenger photon particle travels, its forward going wave front is blue shifted upward to produce the cosmic EMS, including our 'visible' range, when it hits a surface and the EMS is spread out on it..
Some of the spectrum's waves are then reflected to our eyes. THIS then is the when, where, and how the EMS is effectively created and visible frequencies are reflected to our eyes... Or again, when the photon comes directly into our eyes it spreads the EMS onto our retinas. This is the reason we can't see light leaving us, or traveling in any other direction than straight on from the source or by reflection straight on into our eyes.. Other direction messenger photons are not hitting our eyes straight on and so to not create any spectrum.
A simple verification of this 'straight on' factor is to consider a single point source that two people can see coming at them. Each can see the photons coming into their own eyes but not the other's I expect if it were otherwise we would all see nothing but a continuous glare of white light all around us.
But the messenger photons are still there. Because either person can put their hand in the path going to the other person's eyes and see the reflection from those otherwise invisible messenger photon particles hitting and lighting the hand.. The visible frequencies are created on your hand and are reflected to your eyes.
This of course totally explains Olbers’s Paradox... Why is the sky black at night... Cause there is no lijght out there until the messenger photon (free electron) *hits* something to create it..
The original incoming visible spectrum of the overall EMS is normally seen as white as it contains all the colors. But reflections carry only the frequency of the color a particular surface is capable of returning, such as blue at 475 nm. Reflections also tell us the distance the surface is from our eyes by hitting each eye from a slightly different angle. And so with millions or billions of photon particle's wave reflections working together we're able to see the three dimensional room we're in. Not well, but enough for human use.
‘Not well’ meaning that it is incoherent light. Many frequencies mix with the result that they cancel out to various extents, including totally. So we have to pull visible light frequencies from that sludge of lowered energy. On the other hand, with coherent light where all peaks and valleys of a particular frequency are brought into line, it can cut steel. No sludge... :)
The rest is that, upon arrival, messenger photons embed themselves in the surfaces they hit, which degrades that surface over time... Most of the non reflected wavelengths will pass though that surface as most EMS waves do though most materials... But the embedded messenger photons will likely still radiate their native RF frequencies for a bit, many being microwave frequencies they brought to and into that surface... Which causes that surface to heat up.
So watch what you watch.
Here again I'd like to say I'm only human. And that I have no idea of how low or slow, or high and fast the cosmos works. We know many things but I'm sure much more goes on that we earth-bounders can't feel, measure, see, or believe... That an atom in my fingertip can affect atoms in the Andromeda Galaxy gives some idea of this. That such a wide range of frequencies can be brought to us by a particle trying to get through the attractions and obstacles of the cosmos, to travel so far and to have its radiations travel so much further when reflected back additional great distances such as views we can see from mountain tops or that of the moon is mind-boggling. The energy levels expended and the potentials that seem to abound in the cosmos are tremendous, or on the other hand there are those that are immeasurably weak and inconsequential as seen from our POV too. But obviously to the cosmos they are both an equal part of it. Forces that are more invasive and controlling than we not-totally-sentient beings can imagine.
So here goes the Nobel Prize Material. :)
As above but reiterated with a little more detail... When first considering a photon particle coming at us and emitting a frequency that was blue shifted upward to what we see as light, we realized that since the photon was traveling at the speed of light, it could not radiate a wave ahead of itself without keeping up with it as it was being created. In other words that every point of the forward going wave front would be at the same instant as every other point.., and they would therefore cancel out. There would be no frequency
But since messenger photon particles cannot travel at that speed it is moot. But we are still left with a standard ‘doppler effect’ situation... The conditions that are described in the image below...
We saw that this maximum shifting would only happen in the extreme straight on direction. Since a particle radiates in all directions at once we looked a degree or two away from straight on and began to see extremely high frequencies that had not been blue shifted out of existence that were starting to build in amplitude. Those various angles off from straight ahead were not so totally compressed and as the angle away from straight ahead is increased degree by degree, there is less and less blue shifting, allowing lower and lower radiated frequencies to spread out from the center.
We saw that the angles of radiation from straight ahead to 90 degrees out would contain all the frequencies that could ever be generated in any way imagined or needed, able to be used as such any inertial frame. In other words our earth's entire electromagnetic spectrum *plus*. From the ultimate highest and ‘possibly’ self canceling frequency in the forward direction, to the cosmos long frequency just before the 90 degree point.., where that degree goes perpendicular to our field of vision and not toward us at all.
What it amounts to, since photons radiate outward in all directions at once, is that as each messenger photon hits a surface, the entire cosmic spectrum comes with it. It spreads itself outward from the center of impact, from highest to lowest frequency. Relating specifically to the visible light spectrum portion here, you will see the highest frequency colors hit first, in a circle close around the center, followed by each slower frequency, cycle by cycle, laying down the rest of the rainbow of rings moving outward.
When seen in graph form, outward going distances for the blue and red frequencies traveling at light speed, vs. a photon's straight on travel at light speed, is easily understood. A wavefront coming from say 5 degrees off the center line will produce the blue frequency and a wave front coming from say 10 degrees off center, the line of travel, will produce the red frequency.
When wavefronts come up against a flat plane target, a particular wavefront moving outward from the first center contact will have a longer interval between one ahead and the one behind. Blue-shifted less, to be lower in frequency, thus producing the spectrum. But I’m just being verbose and repetitious again...
In addition to the image above I have added a quick drawing of this here.
Twin Slit Experiment
This experiment seems to be synonymous with the study of light. But I'll explain it anyway. I can almost hear the groans. lol
In any case, it is apparently the ultimate challenge to discovering how light produces the various results it gives. I have heard it said that if one does, they get the Nobel Prize. So I will do that. Lets see how much of that is true, eh? :)
It can be carried out using the sun, lasers, or even incoherent incandescent light. And they all give basically the same result. Two surfaces are set up one behind the other. The near surface having two side-by-side slits, each just wide enough to pass a vertical column of messenger photons. The near surface then has a light source applied to it to see what transpires.
What does transpire is that as the messenger photons approach the near surface, their visible spectrum waves hit all over that surface and are reflected back to the viewer. Everything is normal.
As some of the photons move through the slits, their radiated waves will again propagate forward and outward to reflect off the entire far wall. With one slit open the back wall be covered with light, with a significantly brighter vertical area that is in line with the slit...
As each photon proceeds toward the far wall the width of its effective wavefront coverage contracts inward as the circular rings of visible color on that wall become smaller and smaller. When it is very close to the far wall its radiated visible light spectrum ‘width’ will only encompass the area directly in line with its slit. So the areas in line with the slits are the last areas to get ‘lighted’ by all the incoming photons’ visible spectrum waves. The why of that area being the brightest with only one slit open. So, by arriving at that back wall., every incoming photon has brushed every visible color frequency across every molecule on the surface of that back wall until that photon hits and embeds itself into the wall and the width of its visible light spectrum made zero. To reiterate, every molecule on that back wall is wiped with every color of the rainbow by every incoming photon as their radiated wavefronts contract from full back wall width to near zero width in line with their respective slits... .. Each molecule of that back wall area then either absorbes, passes, or reflects the waves, depending on the color that wall is meant to be.
Actually they do the same to every molecule on the front wall too.., but for now let’s just stay with the two slit quandary... :)
When the other slit is opened and there are two groups of photons streaming in and radiating their waves outward. The back panel changes from being fully lighted to showing several pronounced bars of light and dark across its width.... For ease of describing what is happening we will adjust the distance between the wall with the slits and the far wall to produce just five alternating bars of light with the center bar being between the two slits.
The bars of course comes from the interference pattern expected when two waves cross. But this is often where the experiment ends, and we are left in one of the dark areas as to why all this is happening.
So here’s the rest of it... Looking at the five vertical bars of light that are formed, the wave peaks that create the two bars in line with the slits are at say an arbitrary level ‘2’ intensity. Ignoring the dark canceled out valleys because we all know why they are so.., the interference induced peaks that also occur on either side of each of the two ‘slit’ bars will each be somewhat dimmer. For instance a level of 1-1/2.., and this is the intensity that will be seen at the two outside bars of the five total. The two similar 1-1/2 level peaks towards the middle between the slits will overlap each other and therefore produce the brightest bar with an intensity total of 3.
The above is a typical illustration of a wave interference pattern seen from above... One can relate it to the two slits on the right wall with photons coming through both to radiate their waves outward and covering the full width of the left wall... It shows the pattern of mixing that produces the light and dark areas on that wall. You will notice that one of the light areas is between the two wave source slits.
But that is not all there is to it... One must also consider the messenger photons as they actually from the right to the left walls... All the while emitting the EMS and producing continuously smaller circular rainbows until they shrink to nothing when the messenger photons hits the wall...
So to ease the describing we’ll only be considering the visible portion with what follows... Only the circular rainbows of color that are being sent out from that photon in a more or less cone shaped forward direction. When the photons first comes through the slits, these cones are at maximum size and fill the rear wall with the largest circle of colors that can be had as the distance the walls are apart... These large circles overlap to a large extent but are offset by the distance between the slits. So each will have the reds on the outside edges that will not be covered by the other rainbow. This is where the red tinge comes from that is seen in most white-light twin slit experiments... The rest of the area of the rear wall will be wiped with all the rest of the colors both by their own slit’s photons as the diameters decrease along with the other slit’s photons doing likewise.., to produce white light...
Now I’m not even going to try describing all the mixing that will be going on.., with each photon’s waves mixing with the ones ahead, behind, above and below with all those various sized circular rainbows of light being projected ahead. The billions and trillions of rainbows of every size being laid down on that far wall at once... I mean it’s very easy to see, with only one slit open, that it will turn out to be white light that is reflected.., except for the extreme outside edges. But I expect it would take a a Cray or two to compute where all the peaks and valleys were at every instant, when the second slit was opened. I might be wrong here but I’m certainly not able to visualize a pattern forming as the waves all travel from the two slits to the far wall. But it turns out that they do, upon last fixed impact point, produce the vertical bars.
But for now, all I can come up with is knowing that when you mix more and more frequencies together, which amplify and suppress each other to various extents, you will eventually end up with a square wave result. Is that it..? It may or may not be, and I lean towards the not... But if anyone can shed some light on this please go right ahead...
So to continue... It appears the actual wave emitting messenger photons will physically embed themselves in the far wall directly in line with the slit they came through, if it’s thick enough to stop them, and that there will be a significant heat build up on those two areas of the wall. Because the photon radiation from each is still going on for a short time inside that wall. Whereas the other bars will only be reflecting the emitted waves which produce little if any heat... Not even from the brighter center bar...
As for the ‘measuring’ that is being done which causes the interference pattern to stop? I don’t know exactly how those attempts are being done but I expect there are several. Each one of them causing the bars to disappear.. So I expect, when everyone realizes they’re stopping the particles that are producing the waves, the waves will stop... Ergo the bars too...
So it should be clear to those doing that measuring. You are not just 'observing'.., you are disrupting...
The so called Ultra Violet Catastrophe.., and the Photo Electric Effect...
All the above of course expalining both of these hitherto insurmountable puzzles... Those which left leading brains of their time totally in the dark... Causing Einstein to get the Nobel Prize in fact for a totally made up and incorrect theory on why ‘photons’ caused electrons to bounce off a steel plate.. He got the idea right that each incoming ’photon’ caused one electron to bounce off the plate., but he totally missed the fact that they were one in the same. That there is no such thing as a quanta... ..
In the case of Ultra Violet light, the bouncing electrons appear almost exactly at the spot where the electrons hit the wall to produce the EMS... And it follows that further down the line, where the red is showing up is far removed from the spot the electron that produced it actually hit... Of course the messenger photon / electrons will still be bouncing from that area.., but it’s not where people are looking I guess.
The Speed of Light, Red Shift, and the Expanding Cosmos.
Here is a more logical explanation as to why the cosmos appears to be expanding. And in fact to be doing so at a faster and faster rate.
The cosmos may in fact be ‘flexable’, but we do not accept the absurd idea that it is expanding faster and faster.
We see it as pretty much steady state. Here’s why...
As we look at light coming from the edge of the visible universe we see it red shifted. This is being taken to mean the cosmos is expanding.
But it is said by some in the scientific community that it may well be an illusion brought on by factors we have not yet detected or just do not understand. Good for them...
Many believe there is a more reasonable explanation. So we hope a few of them get to read this more likely alternative explanation.
First a little stage setting... With scientific support we do not believe the common idea that photons.., aka ‘messenger photons’, travel at the speed of light themselves. Having mass they cannot do so..
But as they travel at their own particular speed they radiate a native frequency that eventually becomes the electromagnetic spectrum, which is massless and actually does travel ‘at the speed of light’.., because that’s what it is.. :)
While a messenger photon's mass may not be measurable to us, its speed and direction are affected by gravity. When all is considered, it is clear that messenger photons cannot travel at the speed of light.. They travel at the speed that was imparted to them when they were sent on their way... The energy behind their expulsion... And it is that speed, among others to be pointed out further on that determines the final shift in color of light to our eyes.
For one, it is the speed of the ‘messenger proton’ electrons that needs to be determined before we can truly know distances in the cosmos... And to know or at least judge their particular speeds one must know the energy expended in sending them on their way. One way or another
Think of a red hot hunk of iron emitting a dull red glow.. Its dispatched messenger photons are barely moving, relatively speaking, in their outward directions. Or perhaps a low powered generator trying to light a bulb and barely able to get it to orange and yellow. Those examples, as opposed to Hershel-36... Which is a star so energetic its light is seen as blue... Its highly energized photons, and many more of them too, are screaming towards us... So I’m betting light’s temperature will give a reliable indication of the photon’s actual speed through the universe....
We need to determine the kelvin to velocity relationship...
So the difference in their incoming speed.., appearing to be more blue or red shifted.., gives the impression the light source was moving away from or towards us. When in fact it is not moving at all.
It also answers Planck’s question of why light’s color was tied to the energy that delivered and/or created it. We have just destroyed quantum physics... lol And the cosmos is about to get smaller... Much smaller... :)
Not to mention that the various color galaxies we see out there can be considered ‘double exposures’ when they both show up to us here on earth. The reds out there that happen to be much further away than some of the blues we see.., but coming at us much slower.., cause both to arrive to our eyes at the same time... They may appear to be ‘colliding’ or whatever other condition those ‘double exposures’ can appear to be doing., but they are not...
So, going beyond the fact that photons erroneously indicate the cosmos is expanding.., they are also giving the indication that it’s expanding faster and faster.
The above explains the various colors we see coming from ‘direct’ light sources. But what it boils down to with the universe appearing to be expanding faster and faster, by our seeing more and more red shift the further out we look, is that the actual messenger photon particles are slowing even more over distance., perhaps in a linear manner for most of its travel. Or that after a certain distance traveled the photons come to the end of their wave producing ability. They slowly drop their output frequency., which makes its light more and more red. Either or both are logically possible for giving the appearance of more and more red shift the further away the photon originates. So the universe is NOT necessarily expanding, much less at an ever increasing rate... Which is an anal concept in the first place. Believe it... There was no Big Bang.. Yea..!! Isn’t that good to know..? :)
At least it explains the fewer and fewer galaxies and stars that are seen as we look further out. That photons just lose their light producing ability after a certain distance. And then they stop altogether. That a photon continues to produce visible light *forever* is not easy to believe in the first place. So.., because we can’t see light beyond a certain point in the cosmos, does that mean there is nothing there..? No it does not...
That photons cannot generate light forever fits in very nicely with the rest of what is observed in the universe.
For one that we are in the middle of a 'visible' portion of the much bigger entire universe... As we look out into the cosmos we can see an equal distance in all directions. The first thing that comes to mind other than the absurd idea that we are at the exact center of the entire universe, along with being at at the exact spot where the big bang was supposed to have occurred, but still cannot be found, is that there was no big bang.., and that is simply much more to the universe than we can see. And that there is a limit to the distance a photon can travel while still producing a visible and viable frequency.
Since we're not really in the center of anything, photons traveling their maximum distance to earth from all directions around us can only mean that we are only able to see THAT portion of the universe and that we are in the center of THAT visible portion only. A totally subjective situation... Because, perhaps trillions and trillions of miles beyond the edge of our visible universe in any direction, may well be groups of other life form cosmologists who see themselves in the center of their own visible portions of the universe.
So it all seems to point to the fact that there may be bubbles of visible universes for those who have evolved the ability to see in the same manner we have.
Is that totally weird idea of multiple universes and dimensions hiding in there somewhere.? lol Maybe those who use calculations based on ‘t’ have stumbled onto an abstracted version of what is truly happening in our much larger than will ever be known physical universe. It seems so... A similar concept of multiple bubble universes.., but brought about more realistically with the math and concepts based on the characteristics of physical atoms and particles., instead of imagined time stretching, folding, forming worm holes, and whatever.
Another indication that messenger photons are particles with mass and can therefore be deflected by gravity is the well known ‘Gravity Lens’. Many examples exist in the cosmos. When messenger photons are coming from a distant source that is behind a planet blocking Earth's view of it.., we can see that the planet's gravity field bends some of those more outward bound photons around itself and back to the direction of Earth.
So the Earth is then able to see a distorted image of that galaxy or star... At least enough to know it's there. The messenger photons generating the light waves are able to be seen curving around the outside edge of the planet. In an absolutely perfect situation, with the distant galaxy, planet, and observer all being in a straight line, the light from the galaxy will be seen to form a thin circle of light around the blocking planet. But in most cases, deflected light from distant galaxies will be seen as arcs of various lengths and brightness around the planet.
It is not another force (dark matter) bending light... It is gravity redirecting physical mass.
The name given as the reason one sees an increasing red shift the further out one looks.... An observation that gives the impression the cosmos is not only expanding but doing so at an ever increasing rate. That galaxies are speeding away from us faster and faster. That some day the cosmos will be nothing but black to us. :/ So there just has to be something out there doing that..?
Not..! To me that is an unthinking lockstep conclusion with no logic nor consideration of other possible factors or causes. For instance, how much further out into that ten billion trillion times larger unseen portion of the universe would you have to go for everything to already be moving faster than light.? And for it to still be creating more space to fit everything into... Where do these totally dumb-ass ideas come from..?? Is it really ALL from including ‘t’ in the calculations..? Well stop it then... Get back to reality...
I certainly expect it can be explained by normal and the less sensational factors of a non-expanding cosmos.
As already mentioned.., it’s much more likely that photons degrade over distance because they do have a maximum distance with which they can produce what we see as visible light... And so it’s likely they degrade somewhat over that distance.., and likely it’s exponential or at least more quickly towards the end of their ability to create light.
Now they say that Dark Energy suddenly started to expand the universe faster and faster about six or seven billion years ago. What a coincidence... Because it seems to be the point where these messenger photons do start to die more quickly... So I would hazzard a guess now.., that there really isn’t any magical Dark Energy.., but that these messenger photons, which are electrons.., which have been producing light over the total distance from the edge of the visible universe.., are likely losing that ability in a linear fashion.., but after they travel in from the outer edges of the visible universe to a point that’s said to be that distance out in ‘light years’.., the end of their ability to produce light starts to advance more quickly, before stopping altogether.
We have already laid out the very likely scenario where the cosmos is not expanding, so a ‘faster and faster steady-state’ is an oxymoron.
It seems this Dark Energy ‘force’ is another nothing. Another illusion to support the Einstein religion.
Summary..: There is no Dark Engery...
The background hiss or white noise that is thought or wished to be some left over from the big bang is not likely. Because there was no big bang in the first place.. The hiss is much, much more likely to be coming from all the messenger photon’s outgoing frequencies than never quite made it to produce the light and other usable frequencies of the EMS we know and love. Those photons that have come from beyond the visible universe with their output now slowed to the m/w and below areas.
Or simply, as suggested above, that white noise comes from the totality of all useless frequencies that messenger photons have left behind them as they travel...
And likely both....
Spectroscopy is a means to spread visual light waves to see, measure, and record the various intensities of each color or frequency across the spectrum from about 400 to 800 nm... One basic design is seen here...
To this point we have discussed the means by which messenger photons lay down a continuous ‘vanilla’ spectrum... Along with the explanation of the twin slit experiment. Messenger photons passing through the slits to spread their generated EMS against the back wall.
Spectroscopy has the non visible messenger photons striking the lens of a telescope or other focusing ‘prism’ first.... This creates the waves of the visible spectrum, which are focused to pass through a slit to isolate them from ambient light... The waves are then focused into a beam that is passed through a collimator to allign the waves even further. Still white light, the collimated waves are then sent to a refraction grating which spreads them into the various wave lengths, the wave’s spectrum of colors, over the area to be studied or recorded.
Until this point I have been talking only about sine waves being emitted from messenger photons... But spectroscopy shows that they are not that pure.. There are various amplitudes, spikes, etc., throughout the spectrum of color laid out by spectroscopy. The exact reasons are beyond me at this point but here are some possible causes or factors already known. *As I understand them.* ??
The native frequency... That which is blue shifted to the cosmic EMS, depends on the element they came from. Its electron transitions or whatever producing its particular native frequency. And it being ‘modified’ by extensively conjugated pi-electrons..?
The creating of light from incoming messenger photons is clear... I’ll leave the reasons for various spectrograph amplitudes, mixing, emission, absorption, etc., to someone more into it for now...
Flames and Soap Bubbles.
Combustion itself seems to be invisible. Combustion ‘flames’ cannot be seen when coming from some highly volatile fuels such as methanol and ether.. I know nothing of chemistry or reactions causing combustion other than it usually needs external oxygen. I’m sure it’s to do with the momentum the combustion imparts to the messenger photons. That it blue shifts their output frequency to above our visible range. Or even possibly that they’re totally destroyed by the intensity of the combustion....
With more ‘normal’ fires burning carbon based fuels and such, the messenger photons are produced that hit and then reflect and/or refract their waves from the hot combustion gases as they rise upwards, mixing with the cooler air around them as they do. This mixing gives them their movement and wispy look..
It is the otherwise invisible densities of heat from the ‘flame’ structure, that the photons come up against. Similar to the multiple colors swirling around the film of a soap bubble with its various and always changing angles and thicknesses.. The messenger-photon’s outgoing EMR waves are disbursed, refracted, and reflected through and from them. The same as messenger photons hitting a prism to produce a rainbow., but fire of course is a much more fascinating display....