Gravity

                                                 The Cosmos Reconsidered
                                             by Floyd E. Baker



                                                                            CHAPTER  3

We will be slightly revising the text below to include further ‘reconsideration’ on the subject of Gravity.   Those thoughts are now spelled out in more detail in the  *New* chapter...


The force that molds, holds, and controls the cosmos.   

It is wispy, sinuous, and beyond comprehension.

But I think we’re beginning to understand what it is not...   :) 


It is NOT ‘gravity’.., as in a force of it’s own.  But we will continue to call it ‘gravity’ in quotes, but what it really is is already known by another name.  What Einstein called its ‘equivalance’.  ‘Electromagnetism’.

Please consider Occam’s Rasor, reason, logic and all other ways you can find to judge this section..

Electromagnetism, aka ‘Gravity’ when it accumulates in large bodies, is actually the same electrical attraction that caused those grains of salt to come together in a test done in space years ago.  Electromagnetism, the electrical charges that exist in every atom.   It is actually the attraction action between the proton and electron...  But realize that all electrons are not only attracting themselves to their own atom’s positive protons and they to them..,  but they are also pulling all other positive nuclei around them  to themselves as well.     See the chapter on the Atom.

Science says this force or pull is rather weak here on the surface of the earth.., but it is actually mind bogglingly powerful when it comes to the earth attracting other atoms to itself...

We on earth believe that because we can raise our arm against it that it's weaker than we are.   Pretty  egotistical if you ask me...  :)    But being on the earth, our whole body is part of the earth and our atoms are all moving in tune with it.  We are part of earth's inertial frame of ‘gravity’ or electromagnetic attraction.  And the only reason one can raise their arm, or waves on the seas can form, or trees can grow upwards is the extremely fine counter balancing electromagnetic attraction or ‘gravity’ of the cosmos.  The cosmos gravity is 'allowing' it all to happen...   We are all the pencils trying to stand on out  points...   The cosmos is pulling on the earth and us in all outward directions at once...   So we do not feel gravity’s massive but very well balanced force throughout the cosmos.     We and all other matter in its vicinity are slightly more attracted to Earth only because we are right here on it.., a part of it...    But if Earth were alone in the cosmos.., and its gravity the only attraction, we would be pulled down and glued to it so tightly that we would be but a film covering its surface..

On the other hand if we jumped into the air and the earth and moon suddenly disappeared, the cosmic  electromagnetic attraction would allow our body to continue traveling through space in whatever straight line we were traveling when they disappeared.   It’s called ‘inertia’ by some... 

In reality,  with the earth being just a small group of atoms within the overwhelming but unfelt outward pull of the cosmos, the earth is barely strong enough to hold things to itself, and even less to attract objects to it that are in it's near space vicinity.., man-made satellites and the moon in particular.  While these objects are also pulling the earth to themselves their distance, size, and speed in space exactly balance their own  attraction to the Earth and to the Cosmos.

From our POV, most have a negligible effect on the earth in that regard.  Although we do see the ocean tides and the earth's wobble being caused by the moon with its gravitational pull.  Actually the moon plays a much larger part of the mutual attraction than one would expect.  The moon is 1/80th the size of earth but has a full 1/6th the gravity of earth because of its additional velocity.  It turns out that the moon's gravity is about 17 times what it should be by volume alone.  And the gravity of the cosmos is pulling on the moon too.  Just as does with the waves and trees...  We know this because the cosmos is actually wining its celestial tug of war for the moon, which is pulling away from the earth at the rate of 1.5 inches a year.  And I'm sure that rate is constantly increasing.

Gravity is all around us in the cosmos and pulling  towards it in all directions at once.  So the net effect is inertia.  It is there.  The atoms you are made of know that.   One needs to heed...  :)

Gravity is the only force in the cosmos to consider.  From our earth bound POV we call it different names depending on how we see it working in relation to us alone.  Some of the names are 'mass gravity', 'center seeking', 'inertia', 'centrifugal', and 'centripetal'.  The names and differences that gravity appears to have are all the very same GRAVITY.    We will show that even Dark Energy is gravity.  Again I go on nothing more than basic known facts that anyone can validate at the library or the Internet.

Here are aspects of gravity and their ‘generally accepted’ descriptions.

Gravity, 'mass' or 'center seeking', attracts objects toward its center.

Centrifugal Force is seen to attract outward from a center.

Inertia allows an object to travel in a straight line until deflected in various ways.

Dark Matter is supposed to be invisible matter centered around galaxies. 

They are all the same force of gravity.  The following are facts and examples to show they are all one in the same gravity..    Except for Dark Matter...  Dark natter does not exist.  This is explained below.

 

In General...:

Whatever gravity strength a particular atom or group of atoms has at any instant is known to diminish logarithmically with distance as measured from its center.   And seen from the surface outward...   Therefore, it is safe to say that the gravity of a particular atom or group of atoms never reaches zero, no matter the distance.  It is logical then to believe that every atom in the cosmos affects every other atom in the cosmos.., however vaguely or slight that effect may seem to us earth bound and not totally sentient beings.

Atoms attract each other.  In the process they form molecules and compounds.  These bits combine to form even more complicated bodies like you and I, the moon, etc.  With each of these having it's particular strength of gravity, depending on its velocity in space and relationship to other bodies of gravity.  The more atoms that accumulate in a mass the stronger the outward reaching force of gravity becomes for attracting even more atoms to it's total.

Consider earth gravity first.., that which we all know and love.  It keeps us nicely attached to the earth and we use it in many ways.

Objects fall to the surface of earth at a speed of 32 ft per second squared.   A fellow named Felix jumped from a weather balloon from 24 miles up and he reached a speed of over 800 mph before pulling the rip cord.   Because of course the entire earth was pulling him faster and faster to its surface.

From that it is said that objects falling into an imaginary tube through the center of the earth would continue to build speed at that same rate.  Until they pass the earth's center.  At which point they will begin to slow, more and more, until reaching the other side and climbing out, in China perhaps.   The entire trip through the earth taking just 42 minutes.

It is also said that this 'center seeking' gravity produces tremendous pressure within the earth.  That there is more and more of it the closer one gets to the center..   Gravity building pressure and compression all the way.   Enough to compress and heat the center of the earth to the point of melting it.  

Scientific fact contradicts both the above.    Neither are true.

Single atoms attract in all directions at once.  A group of atoms will attract more strongly but still do so in all directions at once.  A group of atoms within a much larger group of atoms will continue to attract from all directions at once with the same strength they would have if not included in the larger group.  Therefore when one is considering a large group of atoms such as the earth, and their combined gravity strength, one can only measure it in one direction out from the center of that combination of atoms.  But one must also understand that there is an attraction going on in all directions from that center including in the totally opposite as well, which keeps things attached on the far side.   ALL the atoms of the earth will be pulling objects in from the far side, whether those atoms are on that side of center, or this side.   This is of course how atoms hold themselves together to form larger objects in the first place..

But the net effect is that any of the opposing 180 deg out of phase directions of gravity attraction, from any two points within the earth, cancel themselves out to certain degrees..  This may be from zero near the surface.., to one hundred percent at the center. 

One point to be perfectly clear on is that science *does* measure gravity attractions between various objects such as the earth and moon from center to center, but it is only to use the average of each for simplicities sake...   Certainly not that gravity is really strongest at the center and dissipates outward from there.

Therefore, what is commonly called center seeking gravity should  more properly be called 'surface seeking' gravity.  The entire volume of the earth is pulling objects to its surface.  But once an object passes through the crust, down that imaginary tube for instance, the formula breaks down.  After a short distance into the earth the gravity producing atoms that are now above or back towards the surface and attracting atoms and objects from the inward direction as well, will eventually have enough strength to begin slowing the object falling through the tube.   With four thousand miles to the center, the deeper one goes the more and more gravity from above will be pulling in reverse.  Everything at the center of the earth is actually being attracted by four thousand miles of earth's gravity pulling outward in all directions at once.  So anything at the center is essentially weightless and in free fall.  There being more or less a gravity vacuum at the center.   The equivalent to deep space.    Or being at the center of ‘Centrifugal Force’...

 

CENTRIFUGAL FORCE

If the earth had say a one thousand mile diameter hollow center, one would be able to walk around the inside curve of that void, being pulled to the inner curved surface, by the gravity of the atoms of the earth in that direction.   Just as we and other objects are attracted to the outside curve of the Earth.   On the surface we call gravity pulling outward ‘centrifugal force’.   But in fact there is no actual centrifugal force as such..   Nor is it  artificial gravity.  It is gravity plain and simple.   It is the cosmos pulling on you from all directions at once.   And when you are inside the earth.., is it still the cosmos., with the addition of the earth you are standing within that is pulling you outward

So as we can see, the cosmos produces big time gravity pulling outward but it is normally unfelt on the surface.    As with the outward pull from the center of the earth, the earth itself is effectively in the center of the cosmos too, and being pulled in all directions at once. 
 

MOLTEN MAGMA


Again.., atoms inside the earth are causing and surrounded by an accumulation of the earth's fairly strong gravitational force pulling outward, in addition to and magnified by the cosmos, which is also pulling outward on the earth in all directions.     This causes the atoms near the center of the Earth to be pretty much in a gravity vacuum.   Much the same as deep space.    Their electrons buzz around on shorter orbits and so they are living their lives out much quicker.    And in the process causing a lot of heat.   So we come up with molten magma...     There is really nothing at the center of any body in the cosmos that would or could pull everything into itself.  There is no crushing pressure.  The earth is simply a wannabe sun but it's just not big enough.  It does not have enough outward pull to reach fusion.   

 

HOW ATOMS ATTRACT EACH OTHER.

Because it is known that faster moving atoms have more mass and gravity they can reach out further and pull harder than slower moving atoms.    This is the case with every element.   So they attract slower atoms to them more so than the other way around.    This is seen in all cases.., on top of the element’s intrinsic density.   

Elevators going up change their inertial frame while rising or lowering.

This is a bit verbose, as I usually tend to be..   But in this case the description fits every case of acceleration and inertial frames, so I think it needs to be...  :)   

As acceleration begins, it requires an external force.  The 'energizing' force or source is basically just part of a continuous chain of gravity induced reactions, but we have to start somewhere.  So we'll call say those *first* moving atoms are the floor of an elevator cage starting to rise.  As these first atoms start moving they gain more mass and gravity, as described and explained in the chapter on the Atom.   This extra ‘positivity’ pulls the electrons of the atoms above them downward from the lower part of their fuzz, blur or whatever orbits.    Which  causes those not yet moving atoms above to also develop more gravity or positivity to retain those electrons.   They likely do this by having their neutrons become more proton than neutron... That in turn actually pulls the entire nucleus downward to its electrons and to match the pull of the atom below.   And as it ties into the upward moving group of atoms it maintains its higher positive charge in the upward direction.

So the first level of atoms will attract the atoms at the bottom of the soles of the passenger's shoes, contracting them in the process of bringing them up to the speed of the floor's upward moving atoms.  This combined motion as the elevator rises continues through to the top of the passenger's head and the top of the elevator cage, atom level by atom level.  It is not upward 'push' compression that causes passengers to be seen as ‘compacted’ to an outside observer, it is the faster moving atom's higher gravity or positivity that 'pull' contracts the slower atoms to them from above as they travel upward.  This will happen in any direction that the faster moving atoms happen to be going.

There is earth's inertial frame when an elevator cage is stopped at either the top or bottom of a building, ignoring the slight and normal difference in altitude of course.  The cage has another frame as it is rising, with all passengers, etc. more compacted (mass increased), and living longer, as long as the energy source maintains that extra velocity. 

With the cage traveling upward and slowing near the top, you will see a releasing of gravity.  With each level of atoms feeling less attraction from the less energized atoms below, they lower their gravity level, to begin aging more quickly, and in turn release their own attraction to the atom level above.   This continues level by level to the top of the cage to the point where the rising frame, the cage and its passengers, are back to their original earth frame, and height, and are all aging faster again.

Starting to move downward from the cage's earth frame, those first atoms at the floor accelerate away from the cage's frame and with their stronger inertial gravity, the departing atoms of the floor again pull on the level above.  It is the same story as in rising but this time each level of atoms is pulled downward by the departing faster atom level below.  It just takes a bit longer for the slower earth frame atoms to come up to speed as they have to catch up instead of running into those attracting atoms below.   This difference gives us the floating or free fall feeling as  opposed to the more forceful crunching feeling going up.   As we are for a moment somewhat balanced more towards the cosmos than the earth.  .  This coming to terms continues all the way to the top of the cage again, with it and its passengers again being contracted by the additional inertial or stored gravity.   While moving downward, the cage and everyone and everything in is again aging slower..

As the floor slows to a stop near the bottom, with the lower velocity the lower atoms lose their additional mass.  Which reduces their compactness and gravity production.  That in turn releases their hold on the atoms above.   This continues again to the top of the cage where it and the passengers will then be at Earth’s frame, taller again, with no atom gravity differences, and they will be aging faster again too.     

I call it storing and releasing gravity.  Science calls it potential and kinetic energy. 

In a nutshell, whether the elevator cage and contents are rising or falling, the atoms that cause a transition from one 'at rest' state to another, increasing or decreasing its velocity, will be those that are seen as moving faster than the current state.  Moving in either direction will pull that state’s atoms into a tighter contraction, producing more gravity strength, and slowing their aging process.  In either case, from the POV of the frame the change is being applied to. 

One last point.  If there were no slowing at either end of the elevator trip, instead of a gradual release of stored gravity it would happen more quickly, in degrees called bump, jolt, and crash. 

 

GRAVITY OPERATION WITHIN  A SPINNING OBJECT.

 A shaft starting to turn at the bottom, causes each higher level of atoms within the shaft to be attracted to those faster moving atoms going in a circular motion below and to come up to their speed.  This upward process continues to the top of the shaft.  The shaft will then have a slight spiral, and somewhat smaller diameter.  The smaller diameter caused by the atoms at each level having different gravity strengths from the center out too, and therefore tightening up horizontally as well.  Both the spiral and tightening becoming more so the faster the shaft is rotated.   And we must not forget that the shaft gets shorter too, as higher inertial stored gravity pulls on those above too.   Once the speed of rotation stops increasing, the spiral and diameter will remain until the energizing force is removed, and the reverse action takes place.

If there is also a disk mounted on the shaft, its inner most concentric circle of atoms will be attracted to the faster moving atoms of the shaft, and therefore come up to the speed of the shaft.

All the atoms in the disk, in each concentric circle outward to the rim will be brought up to speed in succession.  If a straight line had been drawn on the disk from the shaft to the rim before starting it will be seen as a slight curve from the shaft in a direction counter to the spin.   These curved lines will straighten out again when the energizing force is removed and the reverse unwinding takes place. 

One may think that once they are all moving at this faster speed, that slowing down, from our outside POV does not follow the same logic that faster atoms attract slower.   But as with the elevator cage, it does. 

Everything in the cosmos is relative to any of the many 'at rest' states.  Individual masses of atoms moving together, planets, elevator cages, space ships, fast cars, our fingers typing, and so on, all have their own particular relative gravity strength, giving a particular amount of contraction and aging speed.  The more contracted running slower and living longer.  They all consider themselves to be 'at rest'.  Every atom works to keep itself ‘at rest’.    As does each concentric circle of atoms in a revolving disk.  Each circle will see the next inner circle growing older and next outer circle staying younger.

At this point on a disk, as opposed to an elevator cage, automobile, or other straight line velocity, there is another factor.  Once each of the concentric circles of atoms is drawn up to the speed of the next inner circle, they reach the point where they are holding each other equally.  But then the outward circle atoms find they are traveling further and therefore faster to complete a rotation.   So their inertial mass and gravity are increased to be somewhat more than that more inner circle, and so they are now more strongly attracted to it.  They are holding on tighter and actually pulling the inner circle outward more than the inner circle is pulling the outer circle inward.   And this is true of all circles pulling harder on the next inner circle.., in other words *Centrifugal Force*.

Therefore too, each circle as you move outward to the rim, having greater velocity, ages a bit slower than the circle just inside themselves, and so it goes successively back toward the shaft.

This is where it was once thought 'dishing' of the disk would occur.   That the atoms in the outer circle building more inertial gravity would pull themselves together in that circle and make each circumference smaller than it had been.    But in fact this cannot happen.  Every concentric circle of the disk will have a proportionally shorter circumferences.  The process that thinned the shaft would continue outward to the outermost rim of atoms on the disk.   The disk will contract in the same proportions it held in earth's frame., but as the outer most circle increases its ‘inertial’ gravity, it begins to be noticed  more by the cosmos.

Eventually with enough speed build up enough inertial gravity pulling outward, circles will not be able to hold onto the inner circles, the disk will break up, and the pieces will leave the shaft and try to head off into the cosmos.

In all cases where one level of atoms starts to feel the attraction of the stronger gravity atoms and starts to move faster, they will almost instantly begin to attract those on their far and slower side too.  That will continuously increase to the balance point of each as each grows its own gravity.   IOW, the transfer of speed and gravity strength does not happen in definite steps atom level by atom level, but as a flow from beginning to end, with contiguous levels of atoms pulling on the next slower level of atoms with whatever tiny fraction of extra gravity that extra speed they have just attained gives them.

 

Centrifugal Force is often called artificial gravity but it is in fact true gravity, simply coming from all directions at once.    Remember that we are in the center of a very powerful cosmos.   It is creating the impression of Inertia.  And it does cause the disk to keep it’s disk shape and not dish.   The effect is most recognized in the use of a centrifuge.   As with the spinning disk above, it is a device made specifically for separating different densities of blood and other liquids and in other cases to give a simulated earth's gravity to astronauts in weightless space.  It works on the same principal as all other situations we describe involving faster vs slower atoms.

For those that involve humans in space, the centrifuge has been looked at as a means to prevent bone loss, muscle atrophy, and other debilitating effects of weightlessness.

But with previously used short diameter centrifuges, with the head of the person near the center of the spin where no  additional gravity is being produced, compared to that at the feet that produces the one G of earth's gravity., the body is subjected to a continuous range of gravity levels.  The same as vials of blood or whatever are to be separated into various component densities.    Albeit a much lower spin rate to produce one G at the feet., what do these short diameter centrifuges do to the circulatory system, digestive system, nervous system, or any other system that needs equal gravity from head to toe?

Fortunately I see more recently that this has been realized and that the more logical, simpler, and a lot safer way to exercise is being used..   By securing people in various configurations to a treadmill or other equipment with stretchable straps to provide the one G for his muscles to push against.  

Further on this…   As a discus thrower spins faster and faster with the discus it, and his arm, gain enough speed and extra outward pulling gravity to pull the thrower off balance.  Anything made to go faster than the 'at rest' earth will disconnect from the gravity of the slower moving atoms if those atoms cannot come up to speed quickly enough.   The faster atoms simply move too quickly and go past any chance of connection before it can happen.

The earth being the tiniest of dust motes in the vast gravitational soup of the cosmos its gravity is just another part of a very balanced force keeping the cosmos in shape...   Only because we are directly in contact with its surface where its gravity is strongest does it appear to be of any consequence.    But with energy continuously input and the discus moving faster than the atoms of the earth's surface, with increasing velocity and internal gravity it eventually disconnects from the underlying earth gravity and is pulled up to that of the cosmos.
 

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And now we’re going for Occam's Razor and the quest for a Unified Theory.  

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Just as things became very clear with no loose ends when we dumped the imagined concept of time, we’re now taking on Gravity.., and ‘Equivalence’.   We're coming to see that Gravity is an imagined force, and not a true ‘separate’ one of it’s own.   It is already known by another name too.   Not that there are two 'similar' forces to be 'equivalent'.    There is only one, and it has been given two names.   Gravity being the ‘other one’..  

What people have been going on are simply various POV’s.  The true force is that which originates in the atom with it’s positive and negative charges.  It appears that one particular effect  or aspect of this electromagnetism force was given the name Gravity for the particular actions it caused in limited cases.  That of drawing other atoms together from single atoms to planet and sun sized accumulations.    Several sub categories of that misunderstood attraction aspect called ‘gravity’  were then named Centrifugal Force, Inertia, Centripetal Force, etc. when in fact everything **IS** the otherwise known force of electromagnetism and not anything else.

What is called Gravity, in and of itself, is still not very well understood.   Here’s just one reference to gravity and the weirdness that comes from a total lack of understanding.  

http://www.symmetrymagazine.org/article/six-weighty-facts-about-gravity

But we see it now as nothing more.., an understatement for sure.., than the already known attraction between protons and electrons.  The positive and negative charges that exist in every atom.   ‘Gravity’ simply being an amplification of that attraction caused by the accumulation of untold trillions of trillions of atoms coming together to form larger and larger objects., which then attract the atoms in other accumulations, like the earth attracting you and I...
  
There are things to be worked out.   One being the particular aspects of iron.  The seemingly separate aspect of ‘ferris’ atoms.    That being a super form of attraction that  we call ‘magnitism.  So we are putting ‘ferris’ attraction on the back burner until we get closer to the overall workings of the cosmos wide  electromagnetic force called ‘gravity’ here on earth.
 
In any case here is what seems to be the case as I and ‘currently misinterpreted’ but true science now sees it...

In researching and writing the book it was not realized until later on just how close we already were in the beginning  in coming to this conclusion.   But it becomes more and more clear as we delve deeper into it.   We are opening another door.   

There are things to be worked out...   One being the particular aspects of iron.  The seemingly separate aspect of ‘ferris’ atoms.    It being an super form of what we call ‘ magnitism’.   So we are putting ferris magnetism aside as a separate issue, until we get closer to the overall workings of ‘gravity’ here on earth and in the cosmos in general...


Always looking for Occam's Razor.., I asked myself what actually could replace gravity.  Gravity itself having no real explanation other than we can feel something pulling on us.  So how about the equivalence.    EMF, magnetism and other such names.   Differing electrical charges pulling on each other.  Is gravity nothing more than an accumulated average of negative electron charges pulling on the accumulated average of positive nuclei...?    Can electrical charges be the one and only force in the cosmos.      I think so...

The structure of our cosmos, it's ability to physically be what it is, including the so called force of 'gravity', may simply boil down to the interaction between charges within each atom, which then extends beyond to affect other atoms.    ‘Other’  meaning all other atoms in the entire cosmos to some degree.

Again this is based on many already known scientific facts.   We’re going on what can be read elsewhere and otherwise known to be logical and true.    There is nothing here that is not already known...    It is all known..    It's just not fully understood or interpreted correctly...   That is why we are ‘reconsidering’ all of it..

Atoms tend to arrange themselves in a three dimensional grid for one.  Equally spaced from each other.  Colloidal I believe is the word.   That because the nucleus of atoms are positive and positives repel each other, they will tend to space themselves as far from each other as possible.   Within any container  they will disperse equidistant to each other as space allows.     With the idea that they are all equally positive...  They each having the same number of protons  They hold themselves in place as it were.   Suspended an equal distance from each other. So that explains the atomic grid like structure of any material.   So far so good?


Now for the 'container' part.   The positive nuclei are kept from expanding away from each other beyond a certain distance by all the negative charges coming from ALL the electrons in the  neighboring atoms..   Especially from each of six directions of the grid around them.., but also those  further out to lesser degrees.., including all others in the entire cosmos to ‘some’ degree..     Each attracted to their own atom's positive nuclei, as well as to all other positive nuclei around it.   

An atom (call it  A) has its electrons attracted inward to it's center., but they are held from closing the gap by the positive pulling away from A’s center by all the positive charges coming from the six closest atom’s nuclei in the grid structure around it... (B through G) and of course the weaker but the many more  positive nuclei further out.      It is a balanced mesh of attraction.   Like a net holding all the nuclei from getting away.    The particular maximum distance between positive charges is controlled by a container of negatively charged energy.     Each  neighboring atom's positive nuclei will be pulling other atom's electrons outward and preventing them from joining their own particular nuclei.   And and all those electrons will be keeping all the positive nuclei from expanding away any further too. 

As for the outside edges of any solid, to us, atomic structure, such as copper wire.., where there are no atoms of that element beyond the outside 'edge' of that wire.  We will see a loosening of the grid structure.  There will not be the one of six most effective copper nuclei beyond the edge to repulse it inward so that last copper atom can force itself further from the body of copper.  The spacing will become slightly larger between the copper atom's nuclei at the wire's surface...  But there are other atoms beyond that edge of course.., such as those creating the air around the wire.   It's only a matter of density and mass.    This same idea will apply throughout the entire spectrum of material densities...  Gases, liquids, and solids...  Each with various densities depending on the elements involved...    In a 'transition area', there is electron mixing and transference from one to the other's atoms, in either direction, in every case....   From liquid, to the liquid's glass container, to the air around the container...       As with the wire, this happens all the time throughout the wire, but much more so at the surface.   The  transition area.., and in either direction   

From what is the more loosely or tightly  ‘balanced’ state, to the other, within the transition space.    Where electrons can and do flow among and between these different elemental atoms.

Our wording here is not yet formalized but the gist of it I think is pretty well explained here...

http://matse1.matse.illinois.edu/metals/prin.html

This then seems to explain how and why copper oxide is formed... and why electric current in a wire tends to flow more through the surface of a wire rather than equally through the entire body of it.  The electrons on the outer surface are in a looser environment so when a positive charge is placed on one end of the wire they are more easily attracted to it than those of the more central body of the wire would be... 

It is the electrons encircling each atom's nuclei that holds the structure together by attracting all the nuclei of surrounding atoms., while balancing out the atom’s positive charges which keep their particular distance from each other

Electrons are kept from joining their own protons and destroying themselves in the process .   Just as earth’s satellites do not fall to earth.  They being pulled outward by the positivity of the cosmos that equals the inward pull of the earth.... 


I see many of the electrons moving hither and yon throughout, but much more so near the surface of any solid..  Jumping from atom to atom.  Creating negative and positive ions and various molecules as they arrive and leave an atom.  Causing rust and corrosion and other reactions...   I still see them doing irregular paths around their own nucleus, for the same reasons.., but now I see their negative charges as being what increase or decrease as well as protons change their  positive strength, as required for the electrons to hold themselves to the nucleus and stay balanced within the positive charges of the atoms around them too.   So this is the gravity that exists and is compounded to some degree by all atoms in the cosmos.   Each combining with atoms that are similar to themselves to make totally balanced elementary structures...  Gold, iron, oxygen, etc... but in total producing totally balanced attraction to all others.