The Cosmos Reconsidered
by Floyd E. Baker
Please note: We are currently updating the book. There are still areas undone. You may find redundancy or other confusing terminology that has yet to be corrected or made more concise..
We expect to be finished by early May but at this point we have updated enough to make it worth rushing the update and re-do.
The force that molds, holds, and controls the cosmos.
It is wispy, sinuous, and ‘almost’ beyond comprehension.
But here we will describe it and that it is also the long suspected Aether that even the ancient Greeks knew was needed to carry information through the cosmos. And how that Gravity is really an Electromagnetic attraction.
Gravity, aka, aether, aka EM attraction.
‘Gravity’ originates in the Atom which are known to attract each other. There is a reason they do that.
Atoms contain positive protons and negative electrons and the interaction between the two charges is what produces the flexible but very well balanced cosmos wide EM attraction. Because what gravity is and how it works is actually already known. Unfortunately no one has connected the dots.
Starting with a bar of copper and an electron microscope we see that the bar is actually a three dimensional grid of copper atoms. Equally spaced trough the bar because they are all the same element. They each have pretty much the same charges.
Here’s the science we know. That an atom has a nucleus of positive protons and that there are a number of negative electrons orbiting each nucleus. We also know that the positive nuclei will repel from each other equally and as far as possible within the ‘container’.
And that the electrons orbiting around each nucleus are being attracted to it and attracting it to themselves as well. But it seems this is where people stop thinking.
Those negative electrons orbiting each nucleus are not only attracting their own nucleus but their negative field also reaches outward to attract all other positive proton nuclei that happen to be in the neighborhood too. Of course we know distance weakens their attraction but with distance comes many more electrons for a combined strength.
There comes a point where the electron’s combined strength attracting all the nucleui will equal the strength of the nuclei’s repulsion from each other. The strengths of the opposing EM polarities will equal. That is then a negative net of attraction reaching out to each of the nuclei to keep them from repelling beyond that balance point. That is their container.. And this is the shell theorem at the level of the atom.
So when we come to the edge of the bar where there are no more copper atoms, there are still atoms and molecules in the air and moisture around the bar. So they attract and interact with each other’s atoms to form a transition area we call copper oxide.
That is how Gravity/EM attraction holds things together. With mutual balanced electrical repulsion and attraction. Then through an infinite number of elements mixing and their transition areas it continues outward to the larger cosmos. The larger bodies like planets and suns not so neatly aligned, simply because they are a mix of elements. And this at the level of the atom is the same principal of the shell theorem that exists in the cosmos which allows larger bodies to remain in place and for to inertia to happen when they’re looking for their own balance point..
The Weak Force.
Science says it is rather weak, but it is actually mind bogglingly powerful.
We on earth believe that because we can raise our arm against it that it's weaker than we are. Pretty egotistical if you ask me... :) But being on the earth, our whole body is part of the earth and our atoms are all moving in tune with it. We are part of earth's inertial frame of gravity strength. And the only reason one can raise their arm, or waves can form on the seas, or trees can grow upwards, is the extremely fine counter balanced EM attraction (gravity) of the cosmos. The gravity from the cosmos is 'allowing' it all to happen. The cosmos is pulling on the earth and each of us in all outward directions at once... So we do not feel earth’s massive gravity but rather a very well balanced force that exists throughout the cosmos. As is the case from the atom and the copper bar up to the entire cosmos. We and all other matter on it’s surface and in its vicinity are slightly more attracted to Earth only because we are right here on it.., a part of it... But if Earth were alone in the cosmos.., and center seeking was the only gravity the only gravity, we would be pulled down to it so strongly that we would be nothing more than a coating of slime on it’s surface.
On the other hand if we jumped into the air and the earth and moon suddenly disappeared, the cosmic gravity would allow our body to continue traveling through space in whatever straight line we were traveling when they disappeared. It’s called ‘Inertia’.
In reality, with the earth being just a small group of atoms within the overwhelming but unfelt outward pull of the cosmos, the earth is barely strong enough to hold things to itself, and even less to attract objects to it that are in it's near space vicinity, man-made satellites and the moon in particular. These objects are also pulling the earth to themselves but their distance, size, and speed in space exactly balance that mutual EM attraction (gravity) with their mutual attraction, also to and from. the cosmos.
From our POV, most have a negligible effect on the earth in that regard. Although we do see the ocean tides and the earth's wobble being caused by the moon with its gravitational pull. Because the moon plays a much larger part of the mutual attraction than one would expect. The moon is 1/80th the size of earth but has a full 1/6th the gravity of earth, because of its additional velocity. It turns out that the moon's gravity is about 17 times what it should be by volume alone. And the gravity of the cosmos is pulling on the moon too. Just as does with the waves and trees... We know this because the cosmos is actually wining its celestial tug of war for the moon, which is pulling away from the earth at the rate of 1.6 inches a year. And I'm sure that rate is constantly increasing. Iirc, I’ve seen a measurement of 1.5 inches years ago. Perhaps a round off but perhaps not. :)
Gravity is the long suspected and known to be needed media for information and fields to travel over. Even the ancient Greeks knew it was not possible for a message to be sent without a carrier to deliver it.
Continuing on with the description of EM attraction above, we see that Gravity is indeed that Aether.
With the balanced network of positive nuclei and negative electrons that exists in the cosmos, we see what is between them as a static charge. What can be said to be instantaneous. And this is not breaking the law of physics that says the speed of light cannot be exceeded. Actually this Gravity / EM attraction /Aether has no speed at all. It is just there., not moving, as that which is contained in the dielectric of a charged capacitor. A near zero level electrical balance. That which is allowing light to travel over at the speed we measure it at.
‘Near’ zero because there is always movement in the cosmos. There are always positive and negative strengths going higher or lower in various directions within the overall balanced condition of the cosmos. So there is this absolute need for instantaneous correction. There’s a lot going on out there and there is no time for delay, as with gravity ‘waves’ that they say exist. They cannot and do not exist and that is explained in the Gravity Waves section of this chapter.
Science seems to see static as some kind of offshoot to the real world. :) But I see it as simply another level to the overall big picture. The POV from our one of the infinite number of inertial frames. Where we are placed in that infinite spectrum of relativity, inertial contraction, brain, perception, and aging speeds.
The earth is not the benchmark of the cosmos
There are many things above and below our ranges of perception, measurements, and imagination. The tiny EM attraction that occurs between bits of paper, pieces of wheat chaff, and baloons stuck to walls may be very much stronger when seen from another frame. It’s all relative. The EM spectrum we know of is extremely likely to extend way above out view of x and y rays and our zero flat line may well be another frame’s ultra violet.
In other words, the concept of ‘extremely accurate measurements made of the cosmos’ is meaningless as far as knowing anything about the cosmos. Those measurements are only applicable here in our one of that infinite number of inertial frames, and the cosmos doesn’t even know we exist.
A static Aether works for all inertial frames. Gravity is an EM sttraction and the Aether too.
BLACK HOLES AND GALAXIES
There are many billions of galaxies in the cosmos. Each galaxy comprised of billions of stars, planets, moons, etc. circling a center called a black hole.
With most if not all of these objects appearing to be spiraling in toward the center of their particular galaxy in a whirlpool type movement. It has been believed that at the center of galaxies there are objects with super strong gravity called black holes that suck in all the surrounding stars and such into itself. That the suns and such on the outside edge would be slowly drawn closer and closer, moving faster and faster into that 'black hole' center. This is basic hogwash.
We will list the reasons against them and then the reasons that they are in fact white Holes.
How is it possible to have that much gravity just because a star burned out and collapsed.? If anything it would have burned and blown off much of its mass and gravity. And isn't it said that black holes tear atoms apart? Since atoms produce gravity but they’re torn apart, where would the hole's gravity come from? Even with some massive sun's compression to the size of a golf ball, and if the atoms were still somehow working, how is it possible for that golf ball to have any more gravity than it did when it was still the original giant star or whatever to begin with. Gravity is always measured from the center out and there is still a center.
Then there is the question about why those incoming suns from all previous points in the cosmos around the collapsed star would know they had to plot a wide sweeping curve to come in at the ende of the outter most spiral of the galaxy to ‘get in line’ so to speak. To await their turn so to speak at being destroyed.
If it were gravity pulling them would they not come directly in from wherever they were in the first place..? Or if not drawn in on a straight line to at least to form their own decreasing orbital plane around the hole irregardless of it’s aspect to the hole..? . What would cause an incoming sun to divert its course in oder to alligh itself with the flat plane of the black hole’s universe..? To cue up in other words..? And of course how did the sun come to be in the first place?. :)
Another big problem with the whirlpool idea is that recently the furthest out spiral arms of galaxies were found to be rotating at the same speed as those closer to the center. In other words there is no real indication that the outer suns etc. are actually being drawn faster and faster to the center. In fact, it indicates quite the reverse. More that galaxies are moving as a whole.., more like a solid disk.
More like the spinning sprinkler on your front lawn. With a center nozzle spewing water out as it spins around. All the droplets of water being thrown straight out from the center and in the process forming the appearance of spiral arms... With every rotation forming another spiral that joins those already moving outward.
Lastly it is known that the further out one looks.., ie, the further back in time.., galaxies generally appear to be smaller. Obviously we are seeng the younger versions of them before the light of their of their current size has had a chance to reach us...
This idea is supported by our own sun. It emits 'solar wind'. Solar wind consists of electrons, protons and other parts and particles that atoms are built from. So it is not a big jump to believe that much more massive sources of solar winds have been spreading the building blocks of atoms in much the same way as your lawn sprinkler spreads the water. These components then come together in ways to make atoms, which build suns, planets, which in turn form a ‘galaxy’ around that source.
So are there really any black holes..? Might they be better called white holes? Creating galaxies that are expanding and growing larger..? I think so...
Dark matter is what is being registered as unseen matter that is said to cluster around galaxies.
Inertia allows an object to travel in a straight line until deflected in various ways.
Gravity is all around us in the cosmos and pulling towards it in all directions at once. So the net effect is inertia. It is there. The atoms you are made of know that. One needs to heed... :)
Centrifugal Force is seen to attract outward from a center.
Gravity is the only force in the cosmos to consider. From our earth bound POV we call it different names depending on how we see it working in relation to us alone. Some of the names are 'mass gravity', 'center seeking', 'inertia', 'centrifugal', and 'centripetal'. The names and differences that gravity appears to have are all the very same GRAVITY. We will show that even Dark Energy is gravity. Again I go on nothing more than basic known facts that anyone can validate at the library or the Internet.
Here are aspects of gravity and their generally accepted descriptions.
Gravity, 'mass' or 'center seeking', attracts objects toward its center.
Whatever gravity strength a particular atom or group of atoms has at any instant is known to diminish logarithmically with distance as measured from its center. And seen from the surface outward... Therefore, it is safe to say that the gravity of a particular atom or group of atoms never reaches zero, no matter the distance. It is logical then to believe that every atom in the cosmos affects every other atom in the cosmos.., however vaguely or slight that effect may seem to us earth bound and not totally sentient beings.
Atoms attract each other. In the process they form molecules and compounds. These bits combine to form even more complicated bodies like you and I, the moon, etc. With each of these having it's particular strength of gravity, depending on its velocity in space and relationship to other bodies of gravity. The more atoms that accumulate in a mass the stronger the outward reaching force of gravity becomes for attracting even more atoms to it's total.
Consider earth gravity first.., that which we all know and love. It keeps us nicely attached to the earth and we use it in many ways.
Objects fall to the surface of earth at a speed of 32 ft per second squared. A fellow named Felix jumped from a weather balloon from 24 miles up and he reached a speed of over 800 mph before pulling the rip cord. Because of course the entire earth was pulling him faster and faster to its surface.
From that it is said that objects falling into an imaginary tube through the center of the earth would continue to build speed at that same rate. Until they pass the earth's center. At which point they will begin to slow, more and more, until reaching the other side and climbing out, in China perhaps. The entire trip through the earth taking just 42 minutes.
It is also said that this 'center seeking' gravity produces tremendous pressure within the earth. That there is more and more of it the closer one gets to the center.. Gravity building pressure and compression all the way. Enough to compress and heat the center of the earth to the point of melting it.
Scientific fact contradicts both the above. Neither are true.
Single atoms attract in all directions at once. A group of atoms will attract more strongly but still do so in all directions at once. A group of atoms within a much larger group of atoms will continue to attract from all directions at once with the same strength they would have if not included in the larger group. Therefore when one is considering a large group of atoms such as the earth, and their combined gravity strength, one can only measure it in one direction out from the center of that combination of atoms. But one must also understand that there is an attraction going on in all directions from that center including the totally opposite as well, which keeps things attached on the far side. All the atoms of the earth will be pulling objects in from the far side, whether those atoms are on that side of center, or this side. This is of course how atoms hold themselves together to form larger objects in the first place..
But the net effect is that any of the opposing 180 deg out of phase directions of gravity attraction, from any two points within the earth, cancel themselves out to certain degrees.. This may be from zero near the surface.., to one hundred percent at the center.
One point to be perfectly clear on is that science *does* measure gravity attractions between various objects such as the earth and moon from center to center, but it is only to use the average of each for simplicities sake... Certainly not that gravity is really strongest at the center and dissipates outward from there.
Therefore, what is commonly called center seeking gravity should more properly be called 'surface seeking' gravity. The entire volume of the earth is pulling objects to its surface. But once an object passes through the crust, down that imaginary tube for instance, the formula breaks down. After a short distance into the earth the gravity producing atoms that are now above or back towards the surface and attracting atoms and objects from the inward direction as well, will eventually have enough strength to begin slowing the object falling through the tube. With four thousand miles to the center, the deeper one goes the more and more gravity from above will be pulling in reverse. Everything at the center of the earth is actually being attracted by four thousand miles of earth's gravity pulling outward in all directions at once. So anything at the center is essentially weightless and in free fall. There being more or less a gravity vacuum at the center. The equivalent to deep space. Or being at the center of ‘Centrifugal Force’...
Centrifugal Force is only a name for Gravity that is attracting outward. It is the attraction from the combined strength of of Atoms, that is coming from another direction.
If the earth had say a one thousand mile diameter hollow center, one would be able to walk around the inside curve of that void, being pulled to the inner curved surface, by the gravity of the atoms of the earth in that direction. Just as we and other objects are attracted to the outside curve of the Earth. On the surface we call gravity pulling outward ‘centrifugal force’. But in fact there is no actual centrifugal force as such.. Nor is it artificial gravity. It is gravity plain and simple. It is the cosmos pulling on you from all directions at once. And when you are inside the earth.., is it still the cosmos., with the addition of the earth you are standing within that is pulling you outward
So as we can see, the cosmos produces big time gravity pulling outward but it is normally unfelt on the surface. As with the outward pull from the center of the earth, the earth itself is effectively in the center of the cosmos too, and being pulled in all directions at once.
Again.., atoms inside the earth are causing and surrounded by an accumulation of the earth's fairly strong gravitational force pulling outward, in addition to and magnified by the cosmos, which is also pulling outward on the earth in all directions. This causes the atoms near the center of the Earth to be pretty much in a gravity vacuum. Much the same as deep space. Their electrons buzz around on shorter orbits and so they are living their lives out much quicker. And in the process causing a lot of heat. So we come up with molten magma... There is really nothing at the center of any body in the cosmos that would or could pull everything into itself. There is no crushing pressure. The earth is simply a wannabe sun but it's just not big enough. It does not have enough outward pull to reach fusion.
HOW ATOMS ATTRACT EACH OTHER.
Because it is known that faster moving atoms have more mass and gravity they can reach out further and pull harder than slower moving atoms. This is the case with every element. So they attract slower atoms to them more so than the other way around. This is seen in all cases.., on top of the element’s intrinsic density.
Elevators going up change their inertial frame while rising or lowering.
This is a bit verbose, as I intend to be.. But in this case the description fits every case of acceleration and inertial frames, so I think it needs to be... :)
As acceleration begins, it requires an external force. The 'energizing' force or source is basically just part of a continuous chain of gravity induced reactions, but we have to start somewhere. So we'll call say those *first* moving atoms are the floor of an elevator cage starting to rise. As these first atoms start moving they become more positive, as described and explained in the chapter on the Atom. This extra positivity pulls the electrons of the atoms above them downward from the lower part of their fuzz, blur or whatever orbits. Which causes those slower atoms above to develop more gravity or positivity to retain those electrons. They likely do this by having their neutrons become more proton than neutron... That in turn actually pulls the entire nucleus downward to its electron. To match the pull of the atom below. And as it ties into the upward moving group of atoms it maintains its higher positive charge in the upward direction.
So the first level of atoms will attract the atoms at the bottom of the soles of the passenger's shoes, contracting them in the process of bringing them up to the speed of the floor's upward moving atoms. This combined motion as the elevator rises continues through to the top of the passenger's head and the top of the elevator cage, atom level by atom level. It is not upward 'push' compression that causes passengers to be seen as ‘compacted’ to an outside observer, it is the faster moving atom's higher gravity or positivity that 'pull' contracts the slower atoms to them from above as they travel upward. This will happen in any direction that the faster moving atoms happen to be going.
There is earth's inertial frame when an elevator cage is stopped at either the top or bottom of a building, ignoring the slight and normal difference in altitude of course. The cage has another frame as it is rising, with all passengers, etc. more compacted (mass increased), and living longer, as long as the energy source maintains that extra velocity.
With the cage traveling upward and slowing near the top, you will see a releasing of gravity. With each level of atoms feeling less attraction from the less energized atoms below, they lower their gravity level, to begin aging more quickly, and in turn release their own attraction to the atom level above. This continues level by level to the top of the cage to the point where the rising frame, the cage and its passengers, are back to their original earth frame, and height, and are all aging faster again.
Starting to move downward from the cage's earth frame, those first atoms at the floor accelerate away from the cage's frame and with their stronger inertial gravity, the departing atoms of the floor again pull on the level above. It is the same story as in rising but this time each level of atoms is pulled downward by the departing faster atom level below. It just takes a bit longer for the slower earth frame atoms to come up to speed as they have to catch up instead of running into those attracting atoms below. This difference gives us the floating or free fall feeling as opposed to the more forceful crunching feeling going up. As we are for a moment somewhat balanced more towards the cosmos than the earth. . This coming to terms continues all the way to the top of the cage again, with it and its passengers again being contracted by the additional inertial or stored gravity. While moving downward, the cage and everyone and everything in is again aging slower..
As the floor slows to a stop near the bottom, with the lower velocity the lower atoms lose their additional mass. Which reduces their compactness and gravity production. That in turn releases their hold on the atoms above. This continues again to the top of the cage where it and the passengers will then be at Earth’s frame, taller again, with no atom gravity differences, and they will be aging faster again too.
I call it storing and releasing gravity. Science calls it potential and kinetic energy.
In a nutshell, whether the elevator cage and contents are rising or falling, the atoms that cause a transition from one 'at rest' state to another, increasing or decreasing it’s velocity, will be those that are seen as moving faster than the current state. Moving in either direction will pull that state’s atoms into a tighter contraction, producing more gravity strength, and slowing their aging process. In either case, from the POV of the frame the change is being applied to.
One last point. If there were no slowing at either end of the elevator trip, instead of a gradual release of stored gravity it would happen more quickly, in degrees called bump, jolt, and crash.
GRAVITY OPERATION WITHIN A SPINNING OBJECT.
A shaft starting to turn at the bottom, causes each higher level of atoms within the shaft to be attracted to those faster moving atoms going in a circular motion below and to come up to their speed. This upward process continues to the top of the shaft. The shaft will then have a slight spiral, and somewhat smaller diameter. The smaller diameter caused by the atoms at each level having different stronger positive nuclei from the center out too, and therefore tightening up horizontally as well. Both the spiral and tightening becoming more so the faster the shaft is rotated. And we must not forget that the shaft gets shorter too, as higher inertial stored gravity pulls on those above too. Once the speed of rotation stops increasing, the spiral and diameter will remain until the energizing force is removed, and the reverse action takes place.
If there is also a disk mounted on the shaft, its inner most concentric circle of atoms will be attracted to the faster moving atoms of the shaft, and therefore come up to the speed of the shaft.
All the atoms in the disk, in each concentric circle outward to the rim will be brought up to speed in succession. If a straight line had been drawn on the disk from the shaft to the rim before starting it will be seen as a slight curve from the shaft in a direction counter to the spin. These curved lines will straighten out again when the energizing force is removed and the reverse unwinding takes place.
One may think that once they are all moving at this faster speed, that slowing down, from our outside POV does not follow the same logic that faster atoms attract slower. But as with the elevator cage, it does.
Everything in the cosmos is relative to any of the many 'at rest' states. Individual masses of atoms moving together, planets, elevator cages, space ships, fast cars, our fingers typing, and so on, all have their own particular relative gravity strength, giving a particular amount of contraction and aging speed. The more contracted running slower and living longer. They all consider themselves to be 'at rest'. Every atom works to keep itself ‘at rest’. As does each concentric circle of atoms in a revolving disk. Each circle will see the next inner circle growing older and next outer circle staying younger.
At this point on a disk, as opposed to an elevator cage, automobile, or other straight line velocity, there is another factor. Once each of the concentric circles of atoms is drawn up to the speed of the next inner circle, they reach the point where they are holding each other equally. But then the outward circle atoms find they are traveling further and therefore faster to complete a rotation. So their inertial mass and gravity are increased to be somewhat more than that more inner circle, and so they are now more strongly attracted to it. They are holding on tighter and actually pulling the inner circle outward more than the inner circle is pulling the outer circle inward. And this is true of all circles pulling harder on the next inner circle.., in other words *Centrifugal Force*.
Therefore too, each circle as you move outward to the rim, having greater velocity, ages a bit slower than the circle just inside themselves, and so it goes successively back toward the shaft.
This is where it was once thought 'dishing' of the disk would occur. That the atoms in the outer circle building more inertial gravity would pull themselves together in that circle and make each circumference smaller than it had been. But in fact this cannot happen. Every concentric circle of the disk will have a proportionally shorter circumferences. The process that thinned the shaft would continue outward to the outermost rim of atoms on the disk. The disk will contract in the same proportions it held in earth's frame., but as the outer most circle increases its ‘inertial’ gravity, it begins to be noticed more by the cosmos.
Eventually with enough speed build up enough inertial gravity pulling outward, circles will not be able to hold onto the inner circles, the disk will break up, and the pieces will leave the shaft and try to head off into the cosmos.
In all cases where one level of atoms starts to feel the attraction of the stronger gravity atoms and starts to move faster, they will almost instantly begin to attract those on their far and slower side too. That will continuously increase to the balance point of each as each grows its own gravity. IOW, the transfer of speed and gravity strength does not happen in definite steps atom level by atom level, but as a flow from beginning to end, with contiguous levels of atoms pulling on the next slower level of atoms with whatever tiny fraction of extra gravity that extra speed they have just attained gives them.
Centrifugal Force is often called artificial gravity but it is in fact true gravity, simply coming from all directions at once. Remember that we are in the center of a very powerful cosmos. It is creating the impression of Inertia. And it does cause the disk to keep it’s disk shape and not dish. The effect is most recognized in the use of a centrifuge. As with the spinning disk above, it is a device made specifically for separating different densities of blood and other liquids and in other cases to give a simulated earth's gravity to astronauts in weightless space. It works on the same principal as all other situations we describe involving faster vs slower atoms.
For those that involve humans in space, the centrifuge has been looked at as a means to prevent bone loss, muscle atrophy, and other debilitating effects of weightlessness.
But with previously used short diameter centrifuges, with the head of the person near the center of the spin where no additional gravity is being produced, compared to that at the feet that produces the one G of earth's gravity., the body is subjected to a continuous range of gravity levels. The same as vials of blood or whatever is to be separated into various component densities. Albeit a much lower spin rate to produce one G at the feet., what d these short diameter centrifuges do to the circulatory system, digestive system, nervous system, or any other system that needs equal gravity from head to toe?
Is this induced gravity needed in the first place? It seems more logical, simpler, and a lot safer to let that person exercise by securing him in various configurations to a treadmill or other equipment with stretchable straps to provide the one G for his muscles to push against. And I see that this is now being done...
Further on this… As a discus thrower spins faster and faster with the discus it, and his arm, gain enough speed and extra outward pulling gravity to pull the thrower off balance. Anything made to go faster than the 'at rest' earth will disconnect from the gravity of the slower moving atoms if those atoms cannot come up to speed quickly enough. The faster atoms simply move too quickly and go past any chance of connection before it can happen.
The earth being the tiniest of dust motes in the vast gravitational soup of the cosmos its gravity is just another part of a very balanced force keeping the cosmos in shape... Only because we are directly in contact with its surface where its gravity is strongest does it appear to be of any consequence. But with energy continuously input and the discus moving faster than the atoms of the earth's surface, with increasing velocity and internal gravity it eventually disconnects from the underlying earth gravity and is pulled up to that of the cosmos.
WATERFALLS AND SPEEDING TRAINS
Faster moving atoms attracting slower moving atoms are seen throughout nature. The phenomenon of feeling drawn to a large waterfall is not in your mind. You who are not moving are being pulled to that large mass of water rushing past you. It is the water's extra gravity doing that. You will also feel it standing 20 ft from a massive iron freight train that is speeding by you at 80 mph. That isn't suction or draft. It is gravity pulling you towards the faster moving mass.
Higher velocity atoms produce more gravity than slower moving atoms. This holds true in all cases, even to the extent of water wearing away rock. Water does not cause a sandpaper grinding effect on the rock. The atoms of the water and rock never even touch. It is in fact the faster moving stronger gravity atoms of the water pulling atoms from the stationary bedrock, trying to bring that rock 'up to speed'. Slowly of course, but over a tens of thousands of years we see a significant lessening of rock. I believe the Grand Canyon was done in 70 k years.
Since there are only a certain number of moving and/or at rest atoms involved with straight line starting or stopping, of an elevator cage or automobile for instance, they work as a self contained whole. They contract and release each other in turn, in what is called potential and kinetic energy exchanges. Again, I call it storing and releasing gravity. So in cases of the top layer of atoms of a rock undergoing a continuous and never ending attraction by a faster moving and much higher attracton to the atoms of the water, the individual slower stationary atoms of the rock are attracted more to the water than to the atoms behind them. They are finally overcome and are carried away. And another bit of erosion occurs. .
One way I believe all of this can be proved would be to hang a weight on a string on the outside edge of a centrifuge disk or table... A spinning something with a fair amount of mass... And the pendulum enclosed in glass to prevent drafting or breeze from disturbing it... Take a photo of its position with the centrifuge at rest.., and another with it at full speed... One should see that the pendulum is pulled toward the spinning disk. I’m sure it can be done and would show a deflection.
This should have been done in some way and already known... All I read is that it’s called a relativistic increase... So what..? The train is shorter... But we’re still being pulled to it... Again it’s a name for what’s happening but not the reason...
It is circling the earth and traveling so much faster than the earth. Its size is 1/80th that of earth, yet because of its speed it has a, full, 1/6th earth gravity. This is velocity induced stronger gravity pulling on the earth to come after it. It producing tides and causing the earth to wobble in its attempt to bring it up to speed. While at the same time the much stronger gravity of the cosmos is attempting to pull the moon into a straight line path, and is in fact pulling it away from the earth at the rate of an inch and a half a year, which surely is ever increasing. Eventually the moon will fly off in a straight line. Or perhaps go directly into the sun.
With the cosmos pulling on everything outward from every point in the cosmos at once, as earth does from its own center and the moon does to earth, the cosmos is the outermost and strongest attraction. It is outward gravity from our POV, or from any other in the cosmos. That which keeps things moving in a straight line in whatever direction they were first propelled. Straight until they come close to large enough gravity source that can cause a deflection. Inertia is gravity attempting to balance itself with the gravity of the cosmos...
One major effect the earth has had on the moon is to create the large mares or seas on this side of the moon, but not on the other. The moon has cooled now but at one time its core was molten. Those mares or seas are very large areas of lava flow. Lava obviously pulled to the moon’s surface by the earth’s gravity on this side as opposed to the other. The dark side of the moon is a continuous landscape of overlapping craters...
CLOCKS FASTER ON MOUNTAINS
It has been found that when sitting in a valley a clock runs slower than if it were at the top of a mountain where it is under less of earth's gravitational pull. The cesium atom vibrations said to be the most precise clock possible shows a difference between these two heights. But as the distance above the earth increases, the faster clock will begin to slow again.
In other words being close to the earth the clocks are affected mostly by earth's gravity and not the cosmos. The clock on the mountain is further away from earth's gravity but still traveling at pretty much the same velocity as the clock in the valley, so it simply runs faster.
But as the clock on the mountain is raised higher, it begins to slow again. Its atoms become more and more affected by the cosmos's gravity as well as its own. At a distance above the earth equal to 1/4 the radius of the earth and traveling at an increased speed to keep it geostationary, the two clocks will be running at the same rate. The effects of the cosmos and of the earth on their respective clocks will be equal. Going still higher with the mountain clock will create still more gravity and continued slowing because of its increased geostationary velocity.
To sum it all up, it is well accepted that gravity originates in the atom and that its strength increases as its velocity increases. And also that an atom's electrons take on longer orbital paths as velocity increases. That in turn slows its internal operation accordingly. These observations are seen but understood to be caused by ‘time’ slowing or stretching. But there is no time. It is obviously a physical slowing of the atom's operation inversely proportional to its velocity and other gravity fields it encounters. People need to heed and to learn to live with the facts.
Such groups of atoms moving together are deemed to be 'at rest' with each other. It matters not the number of atoms nor their arrangement. Look back to those circular strings of atoms spinning on a disk. Each circle considers itself at rest, with all other circles inside or out aging faster or slower.
Time does not stretch, but atoms can operate and age slower. In case I haven’t mentioned it elsewhere, all atoms moving together at any particular velocity through the cosmos will all run at the same internal speed, and so anything they comprise will also operate and run at that particular speed. Clocks.., rust.., human mentalities. Everything will be equal, on average, within any particular inertial frame of reference. All mass and gravity will increase or decrease, producing physical relativity, compared to other frames... But no difference will be felt or seen or measured within any such frame.
But we do notice something going on when we’re *changing* frames. When we store or release gravity. When we’re accelerating or decelerating.
Keep in mind that even within a particular inertial frame such as earth, there are other movements. Each of those movements has its own frame or 'aging' difference compared to the whole. Everything that moves faster in relation to something else, or has more external gravity applied to it, will be aging slower than that something else. Yes, I know some points made are often repeated here, but it's to bring home real facts that prove time is not real. As opposed to circumstantial evidence that lead us to simply believe, or hope, that it is. :/
An example I’ve heard of someone standing next to a pyramid, and it causing time to slow for that person as he watches his friend down the hill moving around quickly in his faster frame. But that does not relate to time stretching at all.., as was held. There is no time difference going on. The person down on the road may see the person at the pyramid moving slower, but when that person comes back down the hill to his friend on the road neither will be answering questions before they were asked or any other display of time delay taking place for one and not the other. What happened to the time gap? Nothing happened at all. There is no time to gap. The two people were always in sync. The person who stood by the pyramid will just live longer now. His bodily functions and perception and watch were slowed a bit for awhile. That's all. Time, in whatever form one wants to imagine it, played no part at all.
But I think I've already said that. :)
With the Earth's crust floating on magma and that crust and the cosmos's gravity pulling outward, it is the continuous outward attraction that causes the movement of the tectonic plates on the surface. The earth swells towards the greater attraction, as is being done at our equator. So, the crust is rising, floating, and rolling over. One obvious result of this is in the Atlantic.., where previous to the Atlantic being there.., one of early earth's major land masses concentrated a major upward pull under itself and distorted the earth enough for it to swell up and separate north to sound.. Most likely starting at the equator and going towards the poles in each direction. It separated the Americas, from Europe and Africa. As the Americas were pushed away and the large mass of gravity divided, causing much less gravity in the original center, the concentrated upward pull subsided. What was left of the crust sunk and the Atlantic Ocean was formed.
What is left of that original split is still seen at the bottom of the Atlantic.., perhaps still in its last throws of rising.., or settling... With much less gravity pull from the ocean above it may eventually heal over and stop. If it hasn’t already done do. Not to mention the sub-ducting going on at the west coast. California may not fall in to the Pacific after all. The earthquakes going on out there now may just be the immense gravity of the mountain ranges causing a similar attraction from below. There is a lot of hot spring activity around their edges. Or, it may just be that the mountains themselves are still trying to ease their own internal pressure, caused by the original separation pushing them against the wall, before they broke it down and went under.
There is also the indication that at least some of these upheavals happen quickly and that the splits separate the land masses very quickly... Can I say extremely and violently so...? Perhaps within a days time..? Moving large land masses from one climate to another... Causing frozen Mammoths to be found with buttercups in their stomachs. A lot of theories on how that might have happened.., none satisfactory. Mine is yet another.. But it fits well...
As described in the chapter on the Atom.., atoms become more and more positive the faster they move. With the earth turning on its axis the atoms at the equator are traveling over a thousand miles an hour. This velocity gives the atoms at the equator a higher positive charge than those poking around the center axis.
This results in a difference of potential from the center to the outside of the Earth. So we can see how an electromagnetic field might be developed. And of course we know the earth does have one. So we find, as all good electromagnets do, that the earth is attracting iron. There being a very large quantity of solid iron at the very core of the earth. It apparently taken from the magma by electromagnetic attraction. There are in fact relatively minimal amounts in the magma, lava, etc. now. So it seems with the tectonic plates continuously feeding more iron to the magma from the crust, and it being quickly transferred to the center, it's likely there will be a time when there is no more iron left on the surface. It will all be at the core.
But I don't think that will be a real problem. Because there are already predictions that at the current rate of consumption, and increasing by 2% a year, there are only 60 some years of usable iron left on the surface.
But of course by then we will have figure out how to draw iron from the center of the earth. Are we not smart viruses like malaria that have devised many ingenious ways and means to stay viable..?
There is a lot to be said here to show that gravity waves *do not* exist. Even though what are thought and said to be gravity waves have been reported detected by the LIGO. I believe they are mistaken. Gravity works in real time.
They say the ‘predicted’ Gravity Waves have been found. But remember what Thomas Jefferson said. If you read the newspaper you will be less informed than if you had not read the newspaper. And also what Mulder said “Trust no one.” :)
Admitted that slight increases and decreases in gravity strength may occur as binary stars circle each other, moving from side-by-side to in-line with us here on earth. That’s not rocket science. And it may even be detected if the detection machinery could continuously track the changing source. But the LIGO’s cannot. They are attached to a rotating earth. So they detect anything more than clicks.
We’re told that the U.S. LIGO which is fixed to the ground and pretty much limited to line of sight along with the other LIGO in Pisa Italy, also fixed to the ground, have done the impossible. That both were observing and comparing the very same spot in the cosmos at the same time. Am I missing something...?
Changes in gravity strength will happen from stars rotating, exploding, or most any other changing motion in the cosmos. I could have told them that without the LIGO being built.
In any case, whatever is seen, felt, or measured gravity wise, it is in real time. Gravity itself is instantaneous, as descried fully in the Aether section of this chapter.
To have ‘waves’ traveling through the cosmos would be very dangerous for the cosmos. Those from two or more sources would act like any other waves and mix to form interference patterns. Rocking the cosmos as they went in and out of phase. And that is not the worse part. Certain frequencies could cause square waves. Where there is zero gravity and then double strength gravity in alternating jolts. That I’m sure would destroy that section of the cosmos up to and including at least one of the offending sources.
With the expected necessary adjustments that are needed from time to fime, gravity is a fairly steady balance of attractions throughout the cosmos. There is a lot to keep track of. It cannot afford the time waves would take, nor the shaking they would produce. Inertia would not be straight line inertia for one. :)
Then of course with Gravity being the long looked for Aether.., a case of not seeing the theforest for the trees.., we cannot have a ‘choppy’ medium. What would it do to light’s distribution to mention just one likely problem.
The first reports said the waves were from a binary star system. Now there are claims they are black holes. :/ No such animal in the first place.
In any case they were going around each other every 8 minutes. So the big doubt comes in where with the earth’s speed of moving through the cosmos and the LIGO’s outer most reception and sensing ability sweeping the cosmos faster than the speed of light. How did they manage to register an eight minute wave cycle.? Or even the minutest part of it. Too small to even recognize it as a wave.??
LIGO's will could not detect any gravity wave originations by accident much less those that may be specifically searched for. Not only for the speed of the sweep, but that the LIGO’s only compare two constantly moving directions out of 360^2 degrees of direction from earth, that can be further divided down to an infinite number of degree fractions at the far end of the sweep direction.
Ok, so they do sweep around to many other points as the earth turns, etc. But doesn’t that give another problem? They will be sweeping across varying strengths of gravity that are occurring naturally in particular directions. They will appear as waves.too. But they’re still real time changes.
The results of 3 years spent at the Antarctic looking outward and finding a glow that is thought to be the remnants of the big bang. But since there was no big bang, it has another explanation. The cosmos goes beyond our visible portion, and in fact is virtually endless, so what is seen is likely just some of the rest of it.
Dark matter is the name given to the extensive but invisible mass and gravity that science has measured in our cosmos. They base this partly or mostly on the fact that galaxies rotate as a flat disk, instead of earlier thinking that the outside edges were slower and continuously speeding up as they moved toward the center.
But this has been explained in the section on Galaxies, above. That Galaxies are more likely created in a similar manner to lawn sprinklers throwing the makings of atoms outward in spirals as the center rotates. As such, it would not be a reason for suspecting the presence of invisible matter. But the idea that invisible matter is out there does make sense to me.
This is only an ‘educated guess’ now, because science doesn't seem to know much either. Science is still in the dark....., matter.
If there IS extreme mass and gravity being detected but not known from whence it comes., I certainly expect it is from the extreme size of the cosmos that cannot be seen. I and others now expect the unseen universe to be a size that exceeds comprehension. And if so we certainly should be including the mass and gravity from the invisible afar in our calculations. Gravity never drops to zero. And it will grow in strength by combining all the minimal strengths from all the very distant individual sources. As I’ve said elsewhere.., the entire cosmos is attracting everything outward with its extremely powerful total gravity.., and many of those other frames out there will have masses that go well beyond our earth bound thinking...
There is this snip from Wikipedia…
“Dark matter is invisible. But based on the effects of gravitational lensing, a ring of dark matter has been detected in an image of a galaxy cluster ‘CL0024+17’ and has been represented in blue.”
Here’s the link to that photo.
That was the claim.. While I wonder how they can color something they cannot see I’ll accept the claim at face value. Gravitational lensing seems to be focusing stuff from an extreme distance, compared to a point light source within our visible universe.. That closer light which also disperses itself with distance.... This blue looks more like a vague circular cloud encircling the galaxy cluster at an extreme distance out from it. As if there is no actual point source.
And that it is blue, if not digitally colored, may well represent the energy behind those photons., emitting them with more force to travel faster, creating blue shift.
But as for dark matter itself..,, the understanding that there is much more universe out there than we can see, and that photons may continue to travel after they have stopped working, it may be that what is being measured is the mass and gravity from that unbelievably larger unseen cosmos.., including the passage of all the now dead, unable to produce visible light, photons continuing through our visible universe.
The gravitational lens effect seen in the photo seems to indicate the incoming is from a very large original area and that the lens is focusing a small part of it to the circular ‘cloud’ we see in the photo.
And I’m going to stop there.., before I get myself in trouble. lol
Where is it..? It is claimed that there is a small amount of anti-matter coming out of the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. But it is also claimed that the center of the Milky Way Galaxy is a dead black hole. Hawkins and I both seem to wonder if black holes even exist. You can read my doubts and alternative to what they are in the Black Hole section of this chapter on Gravity. To top it off the idea of anti-matter seems tied into the Big Bang theory which surely didn't happen.
They (science, tv shows, go with the flow speakers, etc...) theorize that in the early universe each particle had an anti-particle but that they all quickly destroyed each other. Except for a small number of excess matter particles that were left over to form the estimated 10 billion trillion times larger universe than we can see. I don’t think so...
That non-provable time based idea goes on to say there were atoms with negative protons and positive electrons. Even if these anti-matter particles were around long enough to form anti-matter atoms they then say that opposites attract so they annihilate each other. ?? Opposites..? Wouldn't anti-matter atoms be electronically neutral within themselves as matter atoms are..? Which attract each other by their greater positiveness attraction over lesser positive atoms..? Gravity IOW..? Now we’re getting into magnitism of course...
But as for anti-matter’s gravity wouldn’t they be producing anti-gravity and not necessarily attract each other as matter atoms do..? My last question is if they did come together, either particles or atoms.., being energy ‘opposites’., why would they not simply and quietly snuff each other out into nothingness..? Where is all that energy coming from that is said to happen when anti-matter meets matter and they ‘neutralize’ each other...?
It makes no sense to me. Of course I have read there are such things as positive electrons called positrons.., and perhaps a negative proton too..? So I'm going to leave it at that for now. That nature can be modified on a small scale. It's been done before. Two headed sheep and the like... But true anti-matter..? It seems just more dizzyland fantasy......
THE BIG BANG and EXPANDING UNIVERSE
It never happened... Even Hubble tried in vain to stop that idea from spreading. Hubble was the man who first saw what seemed to be red shift from the distant galaxies. Which would normally indicate that the source was leaving us. But he quickly realized it was a flukie of light which is explained in the chapter on Light. But the newspapers got hold of that catch phrase and the public loved it. So now it’s taught in colleges as mainstream by people who call themselves scientists. :/
But after decades of trying to explain where it happened, why it happened, and how it happened, what was there before, and how everything came from absolutely nothing., and even hearing that ‘nothing’ had a way of producing nothing for everything to come from.., they are finally giving on up on it.They have introduced the Big Bounce. That’s where the universe has been inflating and deflating forever. At least they got the forever part right. They have even come up with a sound of tonue or some apparently detectable that signals when the reversals are to happen. lol
I'm not going to say any more. The big bang just didn't happen.
One of the more recent scientific estimates that have been made is that the universe is *10 billion trillion* times the size of our visible portion of that universe. Did you think it was big before..? :)
Actually I’m betting that estimate was made using math which doesn’t allow for infinity. So I’m doubling down on the universe being *infinite* and that it has always been and always will be steady-state.
So we best get back to reality.